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2008


Record 1 of 83
Author(s): Granstrom, R (Granstrom, R.)
Title: A system and stakeholder approach for the identification of condition information: a case study for the Swedish railway
Source: PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PART F-JOURNAL OF RAIL AND RAPID TRANSIT, 222 (4): 399-412 DEC 2008
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify stakeholders' need for system condition information in order to improve railway punctuality. The paper provides a holistic formulation of maintenance-related punctuality problems within the interface between the contact wire and the pantograph. From the identified problem formulation, the information needed to Support the maintenance of technical functions can be identified. The incorporated system and stakeholder perspective adds a dimension to the explanation of what information is needed and why it is needed. The system and stakeholder perspective on the assessment of the information need can serve as decision support when acquiring new condition monitoring technologies. On the basis of the problem formulation, this perspective can also serve as an illustration of how information is to be used to improve punctuality. In order to identify stakeholders' need for system condition information, a failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) approach was used. The FMEA is complemented with information derived from informal interviews performed with a variety of experts working with issues related to contact wires and pantographs. The applied methodology can be useful for conducting further research Studies on other stakeholder and engineering interfaces, such as the wheel-rail interface.
ISSN: 0954-4097
DOI: 10.1243/09544097JRRT183

Record 2 of 83
Author(s): Denger, C (Denger, Christian); Trapp, M (Trapp, Mario); Liggesmeyer, P (Liggesmeyer, Peter)
Editor(s): Harrison, MD; Sujan, MA
Title: SafeSpection - A Systematic Customization Approach for Software Hazard Identification
Source: COMPUTER SAFETY, RELIABILITY, AND SECURITY, PROCEEDINGS, 5219: 44-57 2008
Book series title: LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
Conference Title: 27th International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security
Conference Date: SEP 22-25, 2008
Conference Location: Newcastle upon Tyne, ENGLAND
Abstract: Software is an integral part of many technical systems and responsible for the realization of safety-critical features contained therein. Consequently, software has to be carefully considered in safety analysis efforts to ensure that it does not cause any system hazards, Safety engineering approaches borrowed from systems engineering, like Failure Mode and Effect Analysis. Fault Tree Analysis, or Hazard and Operability Studies, have been applied on software-intensive systems. However, in order to be successful, tailoring is needed to the characteristics of software and the concrete application context. Furthermore, due to the manual and expert-dependent nature of these techniques, the results are often not repeatable and address mainly syntactic issues. This paper presents the concepts of a customization framework to support the definition and implementation of project-specific software hazard identification approaches. The key-concepts of the approach, generic guide-phrases, and tailoring concepts to create objective, project-specific support to detect safety-weaknesses of software-intensive systems are introduced.
ISSN: 0302-9743
ISBN: 978-3-540-87697-7

Record 3 of 83
Author(s): Chen, LH (Chen, Liang-Hsuan); Ko, WC (Ko, Wen-Chang)
Title: Fuzzy linear programming models for new product design using QFD with FMEA
Source: APPLIED MATHEMATICAL MODELLING, 33 (2): 633-647 FEB 2009
Abstract: Quality function deployment (QFD) is it customer-driven approach in processing new product developments in order to maximize customer satisfaction. Determining the fulfillment levels of design requirements (DRs) and parts characteristics (PCs) is ail important decision problem during QFD activity processes for new product development. Unlike the existing literature, which mainly focuses oil the determination of DRs, this paper proposes fuzzy linear programming models to determine the fulfillment levels of PCs under the requirement to achieve the determined contribution levels of DRs for customer satisfaction. In addition, considering the design risk, this paper incorporates failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA) into QFD processes, which is treated its the constraint in the models. To cope with the vague nature of product development processes, fuzzy approaches are used for both FMEA and QFD. The illustration of the proposed models is performed with it numerical example to demonstrate the applicability in practice. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0307-904X
DOI: 10.1016/j.apm.2007.11.029

Record 4 of 83
Author(s): Laskova, A (Laskova, Andrea); Tabas, M (Tabas, Marek)
Title: Method for the Systematical Hazard Identification
Source: PROCESS SAFETY PROGRESS, 27 (4): 289-292 DEC 2008
Abstract: Industrial accidents are usually accompanied by negative consequences for human life, property, and environment. Simultaneously, accidents can provide new knowledge of chemical processes and their properties These accidents and their analysis are usually complicated, but they are important sources of information that highlight the dangers of neglecting safety in chemical companies, and the results are also used to improve risk assessments.
The aim of this hazard identification method is to use past accident results to prioritize efforts by focusing on the critical points of a process, prior to making a detailed quantitative assessment.
The critical points (for example pipelines, vessels, etc.) are identified before making the detailed analyses such as FMEA, HAZOP, etc. Results of this method are the input to quantitative assessments, including: (a) estimation of event frequency, (b) estimation of the consequences, (c) comparison with the hazards, and (d) decisions and actions. The most difficult and timely step is the estimation of the consequences of accident scenarios. This hazard identification metho focuses on the critical points of a process before making quantitative assessments; therefore it enhances the quality of risk assessments while reducing the costs.
This article describes a selection method to identify the major sources of potentially serious accidents with consequences beyond the boundaries of the premises. This method can be used to compare different technologies in the assessment process and assist in prioritizing efforts to reduce risks. This method is used for the installation of new equipment and controls, and it is also used to schedule training and maintenance on the systems with the highest potential hazards. The maintenance and training schedules are also prioritized based on the hazard ratings. (C) 2008 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog 27: 289-292, 2008
ISSN: 1066-8527
DOI: 10.1002/prs.10265

Record 5 of 83
Author(s): Colvin, R (Colvin, Robert); Grunske, L (Grunske, Lars); Winter, K (Winter, Kirsten)
Title: Timed Behavior Trees for Failure Mode and Effects Analysis of time-critical systems
Source: JOURNAL OF SYSTEMS AND SOFTWARE, 81 (12): 2163-2182 Sp. Iss. SI DEC 2008
Conference Title: Australian Software Engineering Conference
Conference Date: APR 10-13, 2007
Conference Location: Melbourne, AUSTRALIA
Abstract: Behavior Trees are a graphical notation used for formalising functional requirements, and have been successfully applied to several industrial case studies. However, the standard notation does not support the concept of time, and consequently its application is limited to non-real-time systems. To overcome this limitation we extend the notation to timed Behavior Trees. We provide an operational semantics which is based on timed automata, and thus serves as a formal basis for the translation of timed Behavior Trees into the input notation of the timed model checker UPPAAL. System-level timing properties of a Behavior Tree model can then be automatically verified using UPPAAL. Based on the notational extensions with model checking support, we introduce timed Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, a process for identifying cause-consequence relationships between component failures and system hazards in real-time safety critical systems. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0164-1212
DOI: 10.1016/j.jss.2008.04.035

Record 6 of 83
Author(s): Gilbert, JM (Gilbert, James M.)
Book Group Author(s): IEEE
Title: Integrating Design, Manufacture and Test using Capability Measures
Source: ESTC 2008: 2ND ELECTRONICS SYSTEM-INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE, VOLS 1 AND 2, PROCEEDINGS: 947-952 2008
Conference Title: 2nd Electronics System-Integration Technology Conference
Conference Date: SEP 01-04, 2008
Conference Location: Greenwich, ENGLAND
Abstract: Successful electronic products rely on a combination of good design, appropriate manufacturing processes and effective test and inspection. In order to achieve all of these within a highly cost constrained environment requires that sufficient, but not excessive, resources are applied to each area. One problem which makes it difficult to balance the allocation of resources is that different measures of performance are used in each context. In the design domain, the objectives are typically design centring, robust design, part count reduction or component cost reduction. Objectives in manufacturing processes are typically yield maximisation, process capability, defect reduction etc. In the test arena, the aim is typically to maximise test coverage and minimising test/inspection times. Given this plethora of different measures of performance, it is difficult to assess trade-offs between different domains and decide appropriate resource allocations.
In order to address this problem we have proposed a unified measure of capability across the design/manufacture/test spectrum. This is based on the process capability measure C-pk which has been adapted to measure functional capability: the ability of a design to meet its performance specification in the presence of component parameter variations, and to test capability: the ability of test/inspection processes to correctly identify defects without erroneously indicating defects which are not present. These capability measures may be related to the costs arising from defects through scrap, rework and warranty returns through a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and a quality cost mapping process. This makes it possible to quantify and compare the cost consequences of design decisions. This unifying analysis methodology is termed electronic Conformability Analysis (eCA).
The paper introduces the eCA methodology, explains the functional, manufacture and test capability measures and shows how these may be related to quality cost. The application of the methodology to a simple example circuit is presented.
ISBN: 978-1-4244-2813-7

Record 7 of 83
Author(s): Ajayi, M (Ajayi, M.); Smart, P (Smart, P.)
Title: Innovation and learning: exploring feedback from service to design
Source: PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PART B-JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING MANUFACTURE, 222 (9): 1195-1199 SEP 2008
Abstract: Successful product innovation demands better integration between the design and service functions of corporations. This requires effective feedback from the field about 'product in use' performance to influence the design of future product and service market offerings that will genuinely contribute to increased customer satisfaction. With the availability of high-quality product field data, the application of techniques such as failure mode effect and analysis (FMEA) can be used to identify and classify failures, analyse their root causes, and propose likely failure consequences to reduce future risks in product development. The present paper discusses the preliminary findings of an exploratory study, in a leading multinational heating company, into the nature and operation of the feedback process from the service to the design function. Initial findings demonstrate that feedback is essentially a learning process that seeks to drive innovation in product development. In addition, some emerging antecedents of an effective feedback process are also presented. These include the need to: capture not only textual data but also contextual information about product failures; have appropriate classification systems; collect and record detailed and accurate failure data; formalize feedback processes; and improve integrating mechanisms to allow open and closed-loop communications between the service and design functions.
ISSN: 0954-4054
DOI: 10.1243/09544054JEM1108SC

Record 8 of 83
Author(s): Straube, F (Straube, Frank); Bensel, P (Bensel, Philipp); Furstenberg, F (Fuerstenberg, Frank)
Title: SCEM: Configuration by a modified FMEA
Source: PPS MANAGEMENT, 13 (3): 53-56 OCT 2008
Abstract: The quality of the configuration process determines how well a SCEM system can perform. This article proposes a set of modified methods from quality management that are suited to lead the user through the definition of events and countermeasures.
ISSN: 1434-2308

Record 9 of 83
Author(s): Chen, Z (Chen, Zhi); Feng, KM (Feng, K. M.); Zhang, GS (Zhang, G. S.); Yuan, T (Yuan, T.); Pan, CH (Pan, C. H.)
Title: Preliminary safety research for CH HCSB TBM based on FMEA method
Source: FUSION ENGINEERING AND DESIGN, 83 (5-6): 743-746 OCT 2008
Abstract: The complexity of the ITER TBM (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Test Blanket Module) and the inventories of radioactive materials involved in its operation require a systematic approach to perform detailed safety analyses during the various stages of the project in order to demonstrate compliance with the safety requirements. A bottom-up methodology based on component level failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) has been applied to perform the safety analyses for Chinese ITER TBM design with helium-cooled solid breeder (HCSB) concept for testing in ITER device. The main purposes of the work are: to identify important accident initiators, to find out the possible consequences for the TBM deriving from component failures, to identify individual possible causes, to identify mitigating features and systems, to classify accident initiators in postulated initiating events (PIEs), to define the deterministic analyses which allow the possible accident sequences to be quantified, and consequently, to ascertain the fulfillment of ITER safety requirements. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0920-3796
DOI: 10.1016/j.fusengdes.2008.05.046

Record 10 of 83
Author(s): Ito, H (Ito, Hachidai); Kaneda, K (Kaneda, Keiichi); Hamamatsu, K (Hamamatsu, Koichi); Tanaka, T (Tanaka, Tatsuji); Nara, K (Nara, Koichi)
Editor(s): Mastorakis, NE; Mladenov, V; Bojkovic, Z; Simian, D; Kartalopoulos, S; Varonides, A; Udriste, C; Kindler, E; Narayanan, S; Mauri, JL; Parsiani, H; Man, KL
Title: Dependability Evaluation of Substation Automation System with Redundancy
Source: NEW ASPECTS OF SYSTEMS, PTS I AND II: 713-721 2008
Book series title: Mathematics and Computers in Science and Engineering
Conference Title: 12th WSEAS International Conference on SYSTEMS
Conference Date: JUL 22-24, 2008
Conference Location: Heraklion, GREECE
Abstract: Substation Automation Systems (SAS) are widely used for the purpose of control, protection, monitoring, communication etc. in substations to improve the reliability of the power supply. SASs adopting IT based solutions such as Ethernet LAN have recently become more common although hardwired control has been used in the past in earlier versions of SAS utilising simple communication methods. Moreover, IEC 61850 which is the international standard for communications within substations has been published, and the application of SAS based on IEC 61850 is increasing.
It is necessary to select each component and the configuration of the SAS from the viewpoint of dependability so that the dependability of the SAS, i.e. reliability, availability, and serviceability may have a very big impact in the stability of the power supply in the electric power transmission and distribution systems.
In this paper, we will describe the configuration policy of an IEC 61850 based SAS, its actual system configuration and the redundant configuration to improve dependability. In addition, we will explain some of the new functions not currently covered by IEC 61850 that we have developed to improve usability and availability. Following which we will present an evaluation of the dependability for MTTF (Mean Time To Failure), Availability, and FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) for these configurations of SAS based on the dependability requirements for SAS.
ISBN: 978-960-6766-83-1

Record 11 of 83
Author(s): Sham, ML (Sham, Man-Lung); Lui, TC (Lui, Tung-Chin); Gao, ZY (Gao, Ziyang); Chung, T (Chung, Tom)
Editor(s): Bi, KY; Xiao, F
Title: FMEA of System-in-Package (SiP)-based Tire Pressure Monitoring System
Source: 2008 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ELECTRONIC PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY & HIGH DENSITY PACKAGING, VOLS 1 AND 2: 28-33 2008
Conference Title: International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology and High Density Packaging
Conference Date: JUL 28-31, 2008
Conference Location: Shanghai, PEOPLES R CHINA
Abstract: For transferring R&D efforts into real product manufacturing, proper product reliability qualification is one of the most critical considerations during product development in addition to assembly yield prediction. It is particularly important for automotive electronics because the operating conditions are extremely harsh (e.g. -20 degrees C similar to 105 degrees C) and a number of applications are even related to human safety.
Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) of SiP-based Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) is selected in this paper as an illustration of the process for transferring R&D efforts into real product. FMEA is proven as a useful tool in the early design stage to identify any potential design and/or process -related failure modes, corresponding effects, root causes followed by corrective actions. Better quality and reliability, shorter system development time and cost, as well as early identification and elimination of potential failure modes can therefore be achieved. In addition, numerical analysis was performed during the course of FMEA in order to address the potential risks and therefore to provide proper recommendations.
ISBN: 978-1-4244-2739-0

Record 12 of 83
Author(s): Martins, MR (Martins, M. R.); Natacci, FB (Natacci, F. B.)
Editor(s): Jin, HW; Wang, YY; Lillig, DB
Title: Reliability Analysis of a Rotary Vane Type Steering Gear System
Source: PROCEEDINGS OF THE EIGHTEENTH (2008) INTERNATIONAL OFFSHORE AND POLAR ENGINEERING CONFERENCE, VOL 4: 478-483 2008
Book series title: International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference Proceedings
Conference Title: 18th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference (ISOPE 2008)
Conference Date: JUL 06-11, 2008
Conference Location: Vancouver, CANADA
Abstract: Classification societies have increasingly been considering new requirements based on risk as an acceptable means for the design of ships, formerly based only on the application of old rules. This paper is an attempt to use some concepts comprised in goal-based standards in the safety field applied to develop the qualitative reliability analysis model of the steering gear system. The main purpose for developing this type of analysis is to identify weak points in order to improve the design and operation of the analyzed system, based on the concepts of RCM, Reliability Centered Maintenance.
ISSN: 1098-6189

Record 13 of 83
Author(s): Mertins, K (Mertins, Kai); Wang, WH (Wang, Wen-Huan)
Editor(s): Harorimana, D; Watkins, D
Title: Certification of Intellectual Capital Statements - Quality requirements for ICS
Source: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 9TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: 491-504 2008
Conference Title: 9th European Conference on Knowledge Management
Conference Date: SEP 04-05, 2008
Conference Location: Southampton, ENGLAND
Conference Host: Southampton Sloent Univ
Abstract: Managing 'intellectual capital' (IC) becomes increasingly vital for future-oriented organisations. The Intellectual Capital Statement (ICS) is an instrument to assess, develop and report organisation's IC and to monitor critical success factors systematically. It supports strategic management decisions. At present, the statements about IC are varied in structure and content. Resulting from increased interests in managing and reporting of IC, stakeholders such as creditors or investors will receive more and more ICS of totally different qualities - from very trustworthy to not at all believable.
To answer the question of 'How to ensure the quality of ICS in a sustainable way?, we develop an approach of ICS certification. It bases on the methods of quality management system certification, financial audit and the assessment for European Excellence Award. For ICS certification, a neutral third party will quality check the ICS beforehand and then audit the organisation on-site. In the end, only the ICS meeting the quality requirements will be rewarded a certificate.
However, a catalogue of requirements serves as the certification basis needs to be in place beforehand. The challenge is to determine the smallest possible amount of requirements that will ensure the ICS meeting the quality criteria: complete, plausible, verifiable, representative for the organisation and have a sustainable impact on IC management.
This paper summarises the crucial factors for a quality assured ICS as shown in the requirement catalogue. The catalogue is the essence of the guidelines from the German project 'Wissensbilanz - Made in Germany' and from the EU collective research project 'Intellectual Capital Statement (InCaS) - Made in Europe'. By using quality techniques such as failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), we examine the ICS implementation procedure thoroughly for deriving the crucial minimum quality requirements. Furthermore, we include the experiences of ICS implementations in 50 German and 25 European small and medium-sized enterprises. The paper shows additionally how the catalogue can be applied both internally, as a quality assurance guide during the ICS creation, and externally, as a certification basis for ICS audits.
The benefits of ICS certification are: The company gets a quality check by a neutral external ICS auditor assuring that the ICS is of high quality level, in other words, the assessment outcomes and the measures are 'correct' and based on verifiable sources. Secondly, the company receives further improvement suggestions after a detailed on-site audit by an expert who is familiar with IC performances of other companies. Finally, a certified ICS has higher credibility for external stakeholders, such as investors, creditors and customers, since it is no longer a mere self assessment result.
ISBN: 978-1-906638-10-8

Record 14 of 83
Author(s): Tay, KM (Tay, Kai Meng); Teh, CS (Teh, Chee Sing); Bong, D (Bong, David)
Book Group Author(s): IEEE
Title: Development of a fuzzy-logic-based Occurrence updating model for process FNMA
Source: 2008 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING, VOLS 1-3: 796-800 2008
Conference Title: International Conference on Computer and Communication Engineering
Conference Date: MAY 13-15, 2008
Conference Location: Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
Abstract: Risk Priority Number (RPN) ranking system is used to evaluate the risk level of failures, to rank failures, and to prioritize actions in traditional Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). The RPN score is determined by multiplication of three input scores estimated by users, Le., Severity, Occurrence, and Detect. Even through this approach is simple, one of the problems is the difficulty in obtaining a good estimate of the Severity, Occurrence and Detect ratings. Besides, it is a tedious job to update the ratings from time to time. In this paper, FMEA system with a proposed framework equipped with a fuzzy inference system based Occurrence model to predict the Occurrence score is proposed, and the fuzzy Occurrence model is devised. In here, we propose a property for the fuzzy Occurrence model, i.e., Monotone output property. We try to derive the condition for the fuzzy Occurrence model to be monotone such as that the derivative in non negative. From the derivation, a guideline on how input membership functions should be tuned is also provided. Simulation results are analyzed using real information collected from a semiconductor manufacturing environment.
ISBN: 978-1-4244-2357-6

Record 15 of 83
Author(s): Filippini, R (Filippini, Roberto); Sen, S (Sen, Soumen); Bicchi, A (Bicchi, Antonio)
Title: Toward soft robots you can depend on - A study of antagonistic actuation
Source: IEEE ROBOTICS & AUTOMATION MAGAZINE, 15 (3): 31-41 SEP 2008
ISSN: 1070-9932
DOI: 10.1109/MRA.2008.927696

Record 16 of 83
Author(s): Hangos, KM (Hangos, Katalin M.); Nemeth, E (Nemeth, Erzsebet); Lakner, R (Lakner, Rozalia)
Editor(s): Lovrek, I
Title: A procedure ontology for advanced diagnosis of process systems
Source: KNOWLEDGE - BASED INTELLIGENT INFORMATION AND ENGINEERING SYSTEMS, PT 1, PROCEEDINGS, 5177: 501-508 2008
Book series title: LECTURE NOTES IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Conference Title: 12th International Conference on Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems
Conference Date: SEP 03-05, 2008
Conference Location: Zagreb, CROATIA
Abstract: An ontology for representing operation, safety and control procedures is proposed in this paper that supports diagnosis based on following these procedures and combining observed malfunctions with Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) information. The procedure ontology is defined within interconnected components of the process plant, diagnostic analysis (where the FMEA is described) and procedures. The proposed method is illustrated on a simple operating procedure.
ISSN: 0302-9743
ISBN: 978-3-540-85562-0

Record 17 of 83
Author(s): Yang, ZL (Yang, Zaili); Bonsall, S (Bonsall, Steve); Wang, J (Wang, Jin)
Title: Fuzzy rule-based Bayesian reasoning approach for prioritization of failures in FMEA
Source: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON RELIABILITY, 57 (3): 517-528 SEP 2008
Abstract: This paper presents a novel, efficient fuzzy rule-based Bayesian reasoning (FuRBaR) approach for prioritizing failures in failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA). The technique is specifically intended to deal with some of the drawbacks concerning the use of conventional fuzzy logic (i.e. rule-based) methods in FMEA. In the proposed approach, subjective belief degrees are assigned to the consequent part of the rules to model the incompleteness encountered in establishing the knowledge base. A Bayesian reasoning mechanism is then used to aggregate all relevant rules for assessing and prioritizing potential failure modes. A series of case studies of collision risk between a floating, production, storage, and offloading (FP SO) system and a shuttle tanker caused by technical failure during tandem offloading operation is used to illustrate the application of the proposed model. The reliability of the new approach is tested by using a benchmarking technique (with a well-established fuzzy rule-based evidential reasoning method), and a sensitivity analysis of failure priority values.
ISSN: 0018-9529
DOI: 10.1109/TR.2008.928208

Record 18 of 83
Author(s): Tay, KM (Tay, Kai Meng); Lim, CP (Lim, Chee Peng)
Title: On the use of fuzzy inference techniques in assessment models: part I - theoretical properties
Source: FUZZY OPTIMIZATION AND DECISION MAKING, 7 (3): 269-281 SEP 2008
Abstract: An assessment model is a mathematical model that produces a measuring index, either in the form of a numerical score or a category to a situation/object, with respect to the subject of measure. From the numerical score, decision can be made and action can be taken. To allow valid and useful comparisons among various situations/objects according to their associated numerical scores to be made, the monotone output property and the output resolution property are essential in fuzzy inference-based assessment problems. We investigate the conditions for a fuzzy assessment model to fulfill the monotone output property using a derivative approach. A guideline on how the input membership functions should be tuned is also provided. Besides, the output resolution property is defined as the derivative of the output of the assessment model with respect to its input. This derivative should be greater than the minimum resolution required. From the derivative, we suggest improvements to the output resolution property by refining the fuzzy production rules.
ISSN: 1568-4539
DOI: 10.1007/s10700-008-9036-z

Record 19 of 83
Author(s): Tay, KM (Tay, Kai Meng); Lim, CP (Lim, Chee Peng)
Title: On the use of fuzzy inference techniques in assessment models: part II: industrial applications
Source: FUZZY OPTIMIZATION AND DECISION MAKING, 7 (3): 283-302 SEP 2008
Abstract: In this paper, we study the applicability of the monotone output property and the output resolution property in fuzzy assessment models to two industrial Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) problems. First, the effectiveness of the monotone output property in a single-input fuzzy assessment model is demonstrated with a proposed fuzzy occurrence model. Then, the usefulness of the two properties to a multi-input fuzzy assessment model, i.e., the Bowles fuzzy Risk Priority Number (RPN) model, is assessed. The experimental results indicate that both the fuzzy occurrence model and Bowles fuzzy RPN model are able to fulfill the monotone output property, with the derived conditions (in Part I) satisfied. In addition, the proposed rule refinement technique is able to improve the output resolution property of the Bowles fuzzy RPN model.
ISSN: 1568-4539
DOI: 10.1007/s10700-008-9037-y

Record 20 of 83
Author(s): Hsu, CW (Hsu, Chia-Wei); Hu, AH (Hu, Allen H.); Wu, WC (Wu, Wei-Cheng)
Book Group Author(s): IEEE
Title: Using FMEA and FABP to risk evaluation of green components
Source: 2008 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ELECTRONICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT: 330-335 2008
Conference Title: 16th IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment
Conference Date: MAY 19-21, 2008
Conference Location: San Francisco, CA
Abstract: This study utilized the failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) to analyze the risks of components in compliance with the EU RoHS directive in the incoming quality control (IQC) stage, which is based on a case of an electronic manufacturer in Taiwan. There are three indices of FMEA in this work: the occurrence (O) that can be learned from the testing report; the likelihood of being detected (D) that refers to the difficulty of detection; and severity (S) that can be quantified from the declaration statement (S-1) and the frequency of green component used by project (S-2). The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FARP) was applied to determine the relative weightings of four factors' then a green component risk priority number (GC-RPN) can be calculated for each one of the components, which are provided by the suppliers to identify and manage the risks that may be derived from them. Numerical results indicated that through the use of the proposed approach, the detected rate of the high risk green components can at least be improved to 20%.
ISBN: 978-1-4244-2272-2

Record 21 of 83
Author(s): Yu, SS (Yu Susheng); Authors, DJ (Authors, Deng Jie)
Editor(s): Hong, W; Yang, GQ
Title: A method for reliability increasing test of wireless base station product
Source: 2008 GLOBAL SYMPOSIUM ON MILLIMETER WAVES: 74-77 2008
Conference Title: Global Symposium on Millimeter Waves
Conference Date: APR 21-24, 2008
Conference Location: Nanjing, PEOPLES R CHINA
Abstract: This paper has described the general process that reliability of wireless base station product is increased by using HALT test technique. For example, the HALT test process of wireless base station type A and its reliability enhancement is described.
ISBN: 978-1-4244-1885-5

Record 22 of 83
Author(s): Siebers, C (Siebers, C.); Stegmaier, J (Stegmaier, J.); Kirchhoff, C (Kirchhoff, C.); Wirth, S (Wirth, S.); Koerner, M (Koerner, M.); Kay, MV (Kay, M. V.); Pfeifer, KJ (Pfeifer, K. -J.); Kanz, KG (Kanz, K. -G.)
Title: Analysis of failure modes in multislice computed tomography during primary trauma survey
Source: ROFO-FORTSCHRITTE AUF DEM GEBIET DER RONTGENSTRAHLEN UND DER BILDGEBENDEN VERFAHREN, 180 (8): 733-739 AUG 2008
Abstract: Purpose: In the case of Major trauma, immediate recognition and treatment of life-threatening conditions are essential. An increasing number of European traurna centers use MSCT during the primary trauma survey due to its high diagnostic precision and speed. However, there is currently little empirical data about failures in this process to practice quality assurance. The aim of this Study was to evaluate this process under operating resuscitation conditions and to identify failure modes that caused delays in completion.
Materials and Methods: An independent study monitor documented the course of trauma room treatment during a 10-month period. The inclusion criteria were patients who were admitted directly from the accident scene and the study monitor was present at the time of admission.
Results: According to our ATLS-based trauma algorithm whole-body CT (WBCT) consists of noncontrast head CT (CCT) and contrast-enhanced trunk CT (TCT). 57 trauma patients receiving 45 WBCT. 5 single CCT and 4 single TCT studies were evaluated. After initial resuscitation, CCT was obtained within 17 min of traurna room admission (IQR 13.0 - 20.0). In 20% (95%CI 9 - 31 %) of the cases, a CCT delay of median 5.0 min (IQR 3.8-8.0) was observed caused by e.g. earings, piercings and ECG cables in the scan field or intoxicated patients. Contrast-enhanced TCT was performed after 23.0 min (IQR 19.0 - 27.0). Due to preventable errors 12 of the 49 TCT Studies were delayed (25%95%CI 12-37%) for 5 min (IQR 3.0 - 8.0).
Conclusion: Under "front line" conditions every fifth CCT and every fourth TCT study was completed with a median delay of 5 min. An independent process analysis revealed that unpreventable delays were due to uncooperative patients or system failure. Preventable delays were due to errors such as short intravenous lines or deviation from trauma room algorithms. Preventable delays could be avoided by addressing human and technical aspects such as revising checklists and functional architecture of the trauma bay. The failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) method would assure quality in this process.
ISSN: 1438-9029
DOI: 10.1055/s-2008-1027561

Record 23 of 83
Author(s): Babeshko, E (Babeshko, Eugene); Kharchenko, V (Kharchenko, Vyacheslav); Gorbenko, A (Gorbenko, Anatoliy)
Editor(s): Zamojski, W; Mazurkiewicz, J; Sugier, J; Wallowiak, T
Title: Applying F(I)MEA-technique for SCADA-based industrial control systems dependability assessment and ensuring
Source: DEPCOS - RELCOMEX 2008: PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DEPENDABILITY OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS: 309-315 2008
Conference Title: International Conference on Dependability of Computer Systems
Conference Date: JUN 26-28, 2008
Conference Location: Szklarska, POLAND
Abstract: Dependability and security analysis of the industrial control computer-based systems (ICS) is an open problem. ICS is a complex system that as a rule consists of two levels supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and programmable logic controllers (PLC) and has vulnerabilities on both levels. This paper presents results of the SCADA-based ICS dependability and security analysis using a modification of standardized FMEA (Failure Modes and Effects Analysis)-technique. The technique mentioned takes into account possible intrusions and is called F(I)MEA (Failure (Intrusion) Modes and Effects Analysis). F(I)MEA technique is applied for determining the weakest parts of ICS and the required means of fault prevention,fault detection and fault-tolerance ensuring. An example of F(I)MEA -technique applying for SCADA vulnerabilities analysis is provided. The solutions of SCADA-based ICS dependability improvement are proposed.
ISBN: 978-0-7695-3179-3

Record 24 of 83
Author(s): Bower, G (Bower, Gregory); Rogan, C (Rogan, Chris); Kozlowski, J (Kozlowski, James); Zugger, M (Zugger, Michael)
Book Group Author(s): IEEE
Title: SiC power electronics packaging prognostics
Source: 2008 IEEE AEROSPACE CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-9: 3639-3650 2008
Book series title: IEEE AEROSPACE CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS
Conference Title: 2008 IEEE Aerospace Conference
Conference Date: MAR 01-08, 2008
Conference Location: Big Sky, MT
Abstract: Electronic packages may be subjected to a wide array of potential failure modes throughout their useful lifetimes. Package design for SiC power electronic devices must account for a number of these potential failure modes, especially those due to the high operating temperatures and power levels at which the semiconductor must operate. High temperature SiC package design is still a relatively immature technology with little information published which discusses package failure. Conversely, the current generation of Si-based packaging technology is quite mature and, therefore, may be capable of providing useful insight with regards to the dominant failures that may be seen in the operational life of SiC and Si high power packaging. A literature survey completed produced considerable information relating to the many known failure mechamisms for Si-based electronic packages. Using the information obtained from this survey, a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) was completed and failure modes considered to have high probability of occurrence in a SiC-based package were identified. The dominant failure modes targeted were bond wire fatigue, solder joint fatigue and encapsulant breakdown. Life models for the fatigue failures were developed using forms of the Coffin-Manson relationship. A life model for encapsulant breakdown was also developed using dielectric fatigue and Partial Discharge (PD) mechanisms through the Dissado-Mazzanti-Montanari (DMM) model and PD model, respectively. These above models will then be used to prognosticate the electronic packaging.(12).
ISSN: 1095-323X
ISBN: 978-1-4244-1487-1

Record 25 of 83
Author(s): Cheng, CL (Cheng, C. L.); Yen, CJ (Yen, C. J.); Wong, LT (Wong, L. T.); Ho, KC (Ho, K. C.)
Title: An evaluation tool of infection risk analysis for drainage systems in high-rise residential buildings
Source: BUILDING SERVICES ENGINEERING RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY, 29 (3): 233-248 2008
Abstract: This study proposes a simple risk analysis tool and evaluation level for the probable infection due to a contaminated drainage stack in residential high-rise buildings in some Asian cities which have equivalent drainage systems. The methodology would follow the conception of FMEA (Failure Mode Effects Analysis). In particular, key risk factors including connections between appliance and stack, the plumbing system, ventilation, equipment life and maintenance were surveyed and used to evaluate the overall risk associated in high-rise residential buildings with Monte Carlo simulations. With the proposed tool, regional risks of infection due to the building drainage systems were estimated, with respect to the city building age and height profiles. The results showed that a city with a high-rise environment would associate a higher spreading risk due to the drainage system.
Practical applications: Following the outbreak of SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) in early 2003, the operational performance of drainage systems in high-rise residential buildings has become a major concern. The assessment system would be practical and sensible for evaluating the infection risk in building drainage systems for both existing buildings and new construction. The assessment tool may provide the government, designers and the occupants a source of reference to judge drainage system performance in either new construction or the existing building, so that improvements would be conducted.
ISSN: 0143-6244
DOI: 10.1177/0143624408091448

Record 26 of 83
Author(s): Mahmoodzadeh, A (Mahmoodzadeh, Amir); Mazaheri, MM (Mazaheri, Mohammad Mehdi)
Editor(s): Santini, A; Moraci, N
Title: A new quantitative method for the rapid evaluation of buildings against earthquakes
Source: 2008 SEISMIC ENGINEERING CONFERENCE COMMEMORATING THE 1908 MESSINA AND REGGIO CALABRIA EARTHQUAKE, PARTS 1 AND 2, 1020: 1755-1766 Part 1-2 2008
Book series title: AIP CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS
Conference Title: Conference on Seismic Engineering Conference
Conference Date: JUL 08-11, 2008
Conference Location: Calabria, ITALY
Conference Host: Univ Reggio
Abstract: At the present time there exist numerous weak buildings which are not able to withstand earthquakes. At the same time, both private and public developers are trying to use scientific methods to prioritize and allocate budget in order to reinforce the above mentioned structures. This is because of the limited financial resources and time. In the recent years the procedure of seismic assessment before rehabilitation of vulnerable buildings has been implemented in many countries. Now, it seems logical to reinforce the existing procedures with the mass of available data about the effects caused by earthquakes on buildings. The main idea is driven from FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) in quality management where the main procedure is to recognize the failure, the causes, and the priority of each cause and failure. Specifying the causes and effects which lead to a certain shortcoming in structural behavior during earthquakes, an inventory is developed and each building is rated through a yes-or-no procedure. In this way, the rating of the structure is based on some standard forms which along with relative weights are developed in this study. The resulted criteria by rapid assessment will indicate whether the structure is to be demolished, has a high, medium or low vulnerability or is invulnerable.
ISSN: 0094-243X
ISBN: 978-0-7354-0542-4

Record 27 of 83
Author(s): Elmqvist, J (Elmqvist, Jonas); Nadjm-Tehrani, S (Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin)
Book Group Author(s): IEEE
Title: Tool support for incremental Failure Mode and Effects Analysis of component-based systems
Source: 2008 DESIGN, AUTOMATION AND TEST IN EUROPE, VOLS 1-3: 800-806 2008
Book series title: Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Expo
Conference Title: Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Exhibition (DATE 08)
Conference Date: MAR 10-14, 2008
Conference Location: Munich, GERMANY
Abstract: Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a well-known technique widely used for safety assessment in the area of safety-critical systems. However FMEA is traditionally done manually which makes it both time-consuming and costly, specially for large and complex systems. Also, small modifications in the design may result in a complete revision of the initial FMEA.
This paper presents a tool support for automated incremental component-based FMEA of SW and HW. It is based on component safety interfaces and a formal compositional safety analysis method. This tool support enables engineers to focus on more important steps in the safety assessment process. Also, during system upgrades, the tool incrementally registers the changes and identifies possible effects in the FMEA which enables the use of earlier safety analysis results. Finally, this formal approach based on design models of the components and the system always creates FMEAs which are consistent with the system design.
ISSN: 1530-1591
ISBN: 978-3-9810801-3-1

Record 28 of 83
Author(s): Rogers, P (Rogers, P.); Hughes, D (Hughes, D.)
Title: Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) of the dispensing process
Source: PHARMACY WORLD & SCIENCE, 30 (4): 386-387 AUG 2008
ISSN: 0928-1231

Record 29 of 83
Author(s): Wang, SF (Wang Suifeng); Ren, Q (Ren Qian); Zhang, YJ (Zhang Yongjun)
Book Group Author(s): IEEE
Title: Interruption cost evaluation for distribution system reliability using analytical and statistical technique
Source: 2007 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS IPEC, VOLS 1-3: 822-826 2007
Conference Title: IPEC 2007 Meeting
Conference Date: DEC 03-06, 2007
Conference Location: Singapore, SINGAPORE
Abstract: To evaluate the interruption cost of distribution system, this paper presents an improved FMEA method to calculate reliability, and a statistical approach to gain Sector Custom Average Damage Function (SCADF). A feeder is firstly divided into line blocks and load blocks according to the isolation devices. Based on these blocks, an equivalent mathematic model is introduced to sum up the elements' data. Load point indexes and system indexes can be evaluated after analyzing the failure mode effect of the distribution network. There has been a survey method for SCADF, whose result is accurate but not universal for different areas. So in this paper, an alternate method is also presented, using the product value which customer created and the electric energy which the process consumed, involving some statistics theory such as regression analysis. The related data can be available easily from the regional government bureau of statistic and the power supply corporation. At last, an actual feeder is illustrated to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.
ISBN: 978-981-05-9423-7

Record 30 of 83
Author(s): Ozarin, N (Ozarin, Nathaniel)
Book Group Author(s): IEEE
Title: The role of software failure modes and effects analysis for interfaces in safety- and mission-critical systems
Source: 2008 2ND ANNUAL IEEE SYSTEMS CONFERENCE: 252-259 2008
Conference Title: 2nd Annual IEEE Systems Conference
Conference Date: APR 07-10, 2008
Conference Location: Montreal, CANADA
Abstract: Complex systems are often developed by independent design teams whose boundaries are defined by interface design documents. Software interface documents, in particular, can be incomplete and ambiguous without anyone realizing it. Such weaknesses can lead to inadequate and incomplete testing prior to system integration prolonged integration problems, and expensive last-minute design changes. Additionally, interface design problems may result in system-level performance issues and inadequate robustness. An important line of defense against interface errors and ambiguities in a safety- or mission-critical system is a software failure mode and effects analysis (SFMEA). This paper explains SFMEA and its use to help identify and correct interface problems.
ISBN: 978-1-4244-2149-7

Record 31 of 83
Author(s): Harms, J (Harms, Jean); Wang, XY (Wang, Xiangyang); Kim, T (Kim, Tina); Yang, XM (Yang, Xiaoming); Rathore, AS (Rathore, Anurag S.)
Title: Defining process design space for biotech products: Case study of Pichia pastoris fermentation
Source: BIOTECHNOLOGY PROGRESS, 24 (3): 655-662 MAY-JUN 2008
Conference Title: 234th National Meeting of the American-Chemical-Society
Conference Date: AUG 19-23, 2007
Conference Location: Boston, MA
Abstract: The concept of "design space" has been proposed in the ICH Q8 guideline and is gaining momentum in its application in the biotech industry. It has been defined as "the multidimensional combination and interaction of input variables (e.g., material attributes) and process parameters that have been demonstrated to provide assurance of quality." This paper presents a stepwise approach for defining process design space for a biologic product. A case study, involving P. pastoris fermentation, is presented to facilitate this. First, risk analysis via Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is performed to identify parameters for process characterization. Second, small-scale models are created and qualified prior to their use in these experimental studies. Third, studies are designed using Design of Experiments (DOE) in order for the data to be amenable for use in defining the process design space. Fourth, the studies are executed and the results analyzed for decisions on the criticality of the parameters as well as on establishing process design space. For the application under consideration, it is shown that the fermentation unit operation is very robust with a wide design space and no critical operating parameters. The approach presented here is not specific to the illustrated case study. It can be extended to other biotech unit operations and processes that can be scaled down and characterized at small scale.
ISSN: 8756-7938
DOI: 10.1021/bp070338y

Record 32 of 83
Author(s): Moffat, BG (Moffat, Brian G.); Abraham, E (Abraham, Eitan); Desmulliez, MPY (Desmulliez, Marc P. Y.); Koltsov, D (Koltsov, Dennis); Richardson, A (Richardson, Andrew)
Title: Failure mechanisms of legacy aircraft wiring and interconnects
Source: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DIELECTRICS AND ELECTRICAL INSULATION, 15 (3): 808-822 JUN 2008
Abstract: This paper presents a comprehensive list of the causes and modes of failure and ageing in legacy aircraft wiring and interconnects. Taxonomies of the electrical, mechanical, chemical and thermal stresses that contribute to the various stages of ageing and/or failure are presented. A Failure Modes Effects and Analysis (FMEA) is conducted to categorize the most serious failures. The order of severity in the FMEA is backed up by maintenance data gathered by the Royal Air Force (RAF) base Brize Norton during routine inspection.
ISSN: 1070-9878

Record 33 of 83
Author(s): Douglass, MR (Douglass, Michael R.)
Editor(s): Hartzell, AL; Ramesham, R
Title: MEMS reliability - Coming of age - art. no. 688402
Source: RELIABILITY, PACKAGING, TESTING, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MEMS/MOEMS VII, 6884: 88402-88402 2008
Book series title: PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY OF PHOTO-OPTICAL INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERS (SPIE)
Conference Title: Conference on Reliability, Packaging, Testing, and Characterization of MEMS/MOEMS VII
Conference Date: JAN 21-22, 2008
Conference Location: San Jose, CA
Abstract: In today's high-volume semiconductor world, one could easily take reliability for granted. As the MOEMS/MEMS industry continues to establish itself-as a viable alternative to conventional manufacturing in the macro world, reliability can be of high concern. Currently, there are several emerging market opportunities in which MOEMS/MEMS is gaining a foothold. Markets such as mobile media, consumer electronics, biomedical devices, and homeland security are all showing great interest in microfabricated products. At the same time, these markets are among the most demanding when it comes to reliability assurance. To be successful, each company developing a MOEMS/MEMS device must consider reliability on an equal footing with cost, performance and manufacturability. What can this maturing industry learn from the successful development of DLP(R) technology, air bag accelerometers and inkjet printheads? This paper discusses some basic reliability principles which any MOEMS/MEMS device development must use. Examples from the, commercially successful and highly reliable Digital Micromirror Device complement the discussion.
ISSN: 0277-786X
ISBN: 978-0-8194-7059-1

Record 34 of 83
Author(s): Ahnannai, B (Ahnannai, B.); Greenough, R (Greenough, R.); Kay, J (Kay, J.)
Title: A decision support tool based on QFD and FMEA for the selection of manufacturing automation technologies
Source: ROBOTICS AND COMPUTER-INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING, 24 (4): 501-507 AUG 2008
Conference Title: 3rd International Conference on Manufacturing Research
Conference Date: SEP 06-08, 2005
Conference Location: Cranfield, ENGLAND
Conference Host: Cranfield Univ
Abstract: With the advent of the new challenge to design a more lean and responsive computer-integrated manufacturing system, firms have been striving to achieve a coherent interaction between technology, organisation, and people to meet this challenge. This paper describes an integrated approach developed for supporting management in addressing technology, organisation, and people at the earliest stages of manufacturing automation decision-making. The approach uses both the quality function deployment (QFD) technique and the failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) technique. The principal concepts of both applications are merged together to form a decision tool; QFD in its ability to identify the most suitable manufacturing automation alternative and FMEA in its ability to identify the associated risk with that option to be addressed in the manufacturing system design and implementation phases. In addition, this paper presents the results of a practical evaluation conducted in industry. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0736-5845
DOI: 10.1016/j.rcim.2007.07.002

Record 35 of 83
Author(s): Arvanitoyannis, IS (Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S.); Varzakas, TH (Varzakas, Theodoros H.)
Title: Application of ISO 22000 and failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) for industrial processing of salmon: A case study
Source: CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION, 48 (5): 411-429 2008
Abstract: The Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) model was applied for risk assessment of salmon manufacturing. A tentative approach of FMEA application to the salmon industry was attempted in conjunction with ISO 22000.
Preliminary Hazard Analysis was used to analyze and predict the occurring failure modes in a food chain system (salmon processing plant), based on the functions, characteristics, and/or interactions of the ingredients or the processes, upon which the system depends. Critical Control points were identified and implemented in the cause and effect diagram (also known as Ishikawa, tree diagram and fishbone diagram).
In this work, a comparison of ISO 22000 analysis with HACCP is carried out over salmon processing and packaging. However, the main emphasis was put on the quantification of risk assessment by determining the RPN per identified processing hazard. Fish receiving, casing/marking, blood removal, evisceration, filet-making cooling/freezing, and distribution were the processes identified as the ones with the highest RPN (252, 240, 210, 210, 210, 210, 200 respectively) and corrective actions were undertaken. After the application of corrective actions, a second calculation of RPN values was carried out resulting in substantially lower values (below the upper acceptable limit of 130). It is noteworthy that the application of Ishikawa (Cause and Effect or Tree diagram) led to converging results thus corroborating the validity of conclusions derived from risk assessment and FMEA. Therefore, the incorporation of FMEA analysis within the ISO 22000 system of a salmon processing industry is anticipated to prove advantageous to industrialists, state food inspectors, and consumers.
ISSN: 1040-8398
DOI: 10.1080/10408390701424410

Record 36 of 83
Author(s): Nepal, BP (Nepal, Bimal P.); Yadav, OP (Yadav, Om P.); Monplaisir, L (Monplaisir, Leslie); Murat, A (Murat, Alper)
Title: A framework for capturing and analyzing the failures due to system/component interactions
Source: QUALITY AND RELIABILITY ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL, 24 (3): 265-289 APR 2008
Abstract: To keep up with the speed of globalization and growing customer demands for more technology-oriented products, modern systems are becoming increasingly more complex. This complexity gives rise to unpredictable failure patterns. While there are a number of well-established failure analysis (physics-of-failure) models for individual components, these models do not hold good for complex systems as their failure behaviors may be totally different. Failure analysis of individual components does consider the environmental interactions but is unable to capture the system interaction effects on failure behavior. These models are based on the assumption of independent failure mechanisms. Dependency relationships and interactions of components in a complex system might give rise to some new types of failures that are not considered during the individual failure analysis of that component. This paper presents a general framework for failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) to capture and analyze component interaction failures. The advantage of the proposed methodology is that it identifies and analyzes the system failure modes due to the interaction between the components. An example is presented to demonstrate the application of the proposed framework for a specific product architecture (PA) that captures interaction failures between different modules. However, the proposed framework is generic and can also be used in other types of PA. Copyright (C) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
ISSN: 0748-8017
DOI: 10.1002/qre.892

Record 37 of 83
Author(s): Goel, A (Goel, Anuj); Graves, RJ (Graves, Robert J.)
Book Group Author(s): IEEE
Title: Using Failure Mode Effect Analysis to increase electronic systems reliability
Source: 2007 30TH INTERNATIONAL SPRING SEMINAR ON ELECTRONICS TECHNOLOGY: 128-133 2007
Conference Title: 30th International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology
Conference Date: MAY 09-13, 2007
Conference Location: Cluj Napoca, ROMANIA
Abstract: This paper focuses on improving the reliability of electronic systems in the electronic packaging/manufacturing industry using Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). The paper starts with the introduction to reliability and the FMEA. It briefly summarizes the research done in these areas, describes the benefits and limitations of the FMEA, compares various FMEA approaches, defines its scope, and offers suggestions for a multidiscipline and multifunctional team. It presents a FA EA form exclusively designed for the electronic systems industry, and provides a list of failure modes that should be considered while performing FMEA on electronic systems. While anticipating every failure mode is not possible, it formulates an extensive list of potential failure modes.
ISBN: 978-1-4244-1217-4

Record 38 of 83
Author(s): Huq, MS (Huq, M. Saiful); Fraass, BA (Fraass, Benedick A.); Dunscombe, PB (Dunscombe, Peter B.); Gibbons, JP (Gibbons, John P., Jr.); Ibbott, GS (Ibbott, Geoffrey S.); Medin, PM (Medin, Paul M.); Mundt, A (Mundt, Arno); Mutic, S (Mutic, Sassa); Palta, JR (Palta, Jatinder R.); Thomadsen, BR (Thomadsen, Bruce R.); Williamson, JF (Williamson, Jeffrey F.); Yorke, ED (Yorke, Ellen D.)
Title: A method for evaluating quality assurance needs in radiation therapy
Source: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS, 71 (1): S170-S173 Suppl. S 2008
Abstract: The increasing complexity of modern radiation therapy planning and delivery techniques challenges traditional prescriptive quality control and quality assurance programs that ensure safety and reliability of treatment planning and delivery systems under all clinical scenarios. Until now quality management (QM) guidelines published by concerned organizations (e.g., American Association of Physicists in Medicine [AAPM], European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology [ESTRO], International Atomic Energy Agency [IAEA]) have focused on monitoring functional performance of radiotherapy equipment by measurable parameters, with tolerances set at strict but achievable values. In the modern environment, however, the number and sophistication of possible tests and measurements have increased dramatically. There is a need to prioritize QM activities in a way that will strike a balance between being reasonably achievable and optimally beneficial to patients. A systematic understanding of possible errors over the course of a radiation therapy treatment and the potential clinical impact of each is needed to direct limited resources in such a way to produce maximal benefit to the quality of patient care. Task Group 100 of the AAPM has taken a broad view of these issues and is developing a framework for designing QM activities, and hence allocating resources, based on estimates of clinical outcome, risk assessment, and failure modes. The report will provide guidelines on risk assessment approaches with emphasis on failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and an achievable QM program based on risk analysis. Examples of FMEA to intensity-modulated radiation therapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy are presented. Recommendations on how to apply this new approach to individual clinics and further research and development will also be discussed. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc.
ISSN: 0360-3016
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.06.081

Record 39 of 83
Author(s): Rath, F (Rath, Frank)
Title: Tools for developing a quality management program: Proactive tools (process mapping, value stream mapping, fault tree analysis, and failure mode and effects analysis)
Source: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS, 71 (1): S187-S190 Suppl. S 2008
Abstract: This article examines the concepts of quality management (QM) and quality assurance (QA), as well as the current state of QM and QA practices in radiotherapy. A systematic approach incorporating a series of industrial engineering-based tools is proposed, which can be applied in health care organizations proactively to improve process outcomes, reduce risk and/or improve patient safety, improve through-put, and reduce cost. This tool set includes process mapping and process flowcharting, failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), value stream mapping, and fault tree analysis (FTA). Many health care organizations do not have experience in applying these tools and therefore do not understand how and when to use them. As a result there are many misconceptions about how to use these tools, and they are often incorrectly applied. This article describes these industrial engineering-based tools and also how to use them, when they should be used (and not used), and the intended purposes for their use. In addition the strengths and weaknesses of each of these tools are described, and examples are given to demonstrate the application of these tools in health care settings. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc.
ISSN: 0360-3016
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.07.2385

Record 40 of 83
Author(s): Tekinerdogan, B (Tekinerdogan, Bedir); Scizer, H (Scizer, Hasan); Aksit, M (Aksit, Mehmet)
Title: Software architecture reliability analysis using failure scenarios
Source: JOURNAL OF SYSTEMS AND SOFTWARE, 81 (4): 558-575 APR 2008
Abstract: With the increasing size and complexity of software in embedded systems, software has now become a primary threat for the reliability. Several mature conventional reliability engineering techniques exist in literature but traditionally these have primarily addressed failures in hardware components and usually assume the availability of a running system. Software architecture analysis methods aim to analyze the quality of software-intensive system early at the software architecture design level and before a system is implemented. We propose a Software Architecture Reliability Analysis Approach (SARAH) that benefits from mature reliability engineering techniques and scenario-based software architecture analysis to provide an early software reliability analysis at the architecture design level. SARAH defines the notion of failure scenario model that is based on the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis method (FMEA) in the reliability engineering domain. The failure scenario model is applied to represent so-called failure scenarios that are utilized to derive fault tree sets (FTS). Fault tree sets are utilized to provide a severity analysis for the overall software architecture and the individual architectural elements. Despite conventional reliability analysis techniques which prioritize failures based on criteria such as safety concerns, in SARAH failure scenarios are prioritized based on severity from the end-user perspective. SARAH results in a failure analysis report that can be utilized to identify architectural tactics for improving the reliability of the software architecture. The approach is illustrated using an industrial case for analyzing reliability of the software architecture of the next release of a Digital TV. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0164-1212
DOI: 10.1016/j.jss.2007.10.029

Record 41 of 83
Author(s): Sharma, RK (Sharma, Rajiv Kumar); Kumar, D (Kumar, Dinesh); Kumar, P (Kumar, Pradeep)
Title: Fuzzy modeling of system behavior for risk and reliability analysis
Source: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMS SCIENCE, 39 (6): 563-581 2008
Abstract: The main objective of the article is to permit the reliability analyst's/engineers/managers/practitioners to analyze the failure behavior of a system in a more consistent and logical manner. To this effect, the authors propose a methodological and structured framework, which makes use of both qualitative and quantitative techniques for risk and reliability analysis of the system. The framework has been applied to model and analyze a complex industrial system from a paper mill. In the quantitative framework, after developing the Petrinet model of the system, the fuzzy synthesis of failure and repair data (using fuzzy arithmetic operations) has been done. Various system parameters of managerial importance such as repair time, failure rate, mean time between failures, availability, and expected number of failures are computed to quantify the behavior in terms of fuzzy, crisp and defuzzified values. Further, to improve upon the reliability and maintainability characteristics of the system, in depth qualitative analysis of systems is carried out using failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) by listing out all possible failure modes, their causes and effect on system performance. To address the limitations of traditional FMEA method based on risky priority number score, a risk ranking approach based on fuzzy and Grey relational analysis is proposed to prioritize failure causes.
ISSN: 0020-7721
DOI: 10.1080/00207720701717708

Record 42 of 83
Author(s): Karim, MA (Karim, M. A.); Smith, AJR (Smith, A. J. R.); Halgamuge, S (Halgamuge, S.)
Title: Empirical relationships between some manufacturing practices and performance
Source: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PRODUCTION RESEARCH, 46 (13): 3583-3613 2008
Abstract: Intense global competition, rapid technological changes, advances in manufacturing and information technology and discerning customers are forcing manufacturers to adopt manufacturing practices and competitive priorities that enable them to deliver high quality products in a short period of time. Identifying manufacturers' competitive priorities and effective manufacturing practices has long been considered one of the key elements in manufacturing strategy research. This paper presents the results of a study conducted to identify some of the effective manufacturing practices that have a significant influence on manufacturing performance. This study also identifies the main competitive objectives of manufacturing industries that participated in the study. The results reported in this paper are based on data collected from a survey using a standard questionnaire administered to 1000 manufacturers in Australia. Evidence indicates that product quality and reliability are the main competitive factors for manufacturers and price has become surprisingly a relatively less important factor. Results show that simultaneous pursuit of advanced quality practices can neutralize the potential negative impacts of manufacturing difficulties and significantly improve product quality and manufacturing performance. Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is shown to be an important tool for improving product quality and on time delivery performance. FMEA practice driven by the intention to improve customer satisfaction is more effective than that practised to fulfil customer requirements. Effective supplier relationships are shown to contribute positively to the manufacturing performance. The results also suggest that maintaining a supplier rating system and product data management and regularly updating them with field failure and warranty data are important manufacturing practices.
ISSN: 0020-7543
DOI: 10.1080/00207540601164201

Record 43 of 83
Author(s): Chin, KS (Chin, Kwai-Sang); Chan, A (Chan, Allen); Yang, JB (Yang, Jian-Bo)
Title: Development of a fuzzy FMEA based product design system
Source: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY, 36 (7-8): 633-649 MAR 2008
Abstract: The demand for high-quality and low-cost products with short development time in the dynamic global market has forced researchers and industries to focus on various effective product development strategies. The authors are carrying out research studies to explore the applicability of fuzzy logic and knowledge-based systems technologies to today's competitive product design and development, with an emphasis on the design of high quality products at the conceptual design stage. A framework of a fuzzy FMEA (failure modes and rffects analysis) based evaluation approach for new product concepts is proposed in this paper. Based on the proposed approach and methodologies, a prototype system named EPDS-1, which can assist inexperienced users to perform FMEA analysis for quality and reliability improvement, alternative design evaluation, materials selection, and cost assessment, thus helping to enhance robustness of new products at the conceptual design stage. This paper presents the underlying concepts of the development and shows the practical application with the prototype system with a case study.
ISSN: 0268-3768
DOI: 10.1007/s00170-006-0898-3

Record 44 of 83
Author(s): Xu, SZ (Xu, Shuzhen); Susemihl, EA (Susemihl, Enrique A.)
Book Group Author(s): ASME
Title: Reliability analysis of water mist systems
Source: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME INTERNATIONAL MECHANICAL ENGINEERING CONGRESS AND EXPOSITION 2007, VOL 14 - SAFETY ENGINEERING, RISK ANALYSIS, AND RELIABILITY METHODS : 37-40 2008
Conference Title: ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
Conference Date: NOV 11-15, 2007
Conference Location: Seattle, WA
Abstract: This paper presents some preliminary results from a reliability study of water mist systems conducted at FM Global. The study includes a detailed Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) to identify all the major potential failure modes, which include demand, quiescent and operational failures. Various fault trees are thus constructed for the typical water mist system configurations to evaluate the failure probabilities. However, due to the short history of industrial application of water mist systems, no specific reliability data are available. Therefore, in the calculation of system failure probability, the component failure data are obtained from other applications.
The failure probabilities and the confidence bounds of the typical water mist systems listed in the Standard 750 of the National Fire Protection Association are compared in the paper. The major failure modes identified through an importance analysis are also presented.
ISBN: 978-0-7918-4308-6

Record 45 of 83
Author(s): Coles, GA (Coles, Garill A.)
Book Group Author(s): ASME
Title: Prospective system assessment used to enhance patient safety case studies from a collbaoration of enginners and hospitals in Southwest Washington State
Source: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME INTERNATIONAL MECHANICAL ENGINEERING CONGRESS AND EXPOSITION 2007, VOL 14 - SAFETY ENGINEERING, RISK ANALYSIS, AND RELIABILITY METHODS : 117-125 2008
Conference Title: ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition
Conference Date: NOV 11-15, 2007
Conference Location: Seattle, WA
Abstract: It is no secret that healthcare, in general, has become art increasingly complicated mixture of technical systems complex processes and intricate skilled human interactions, Patient care processes have followed this same trend. The healthcare Industry, itself. has acknowledged that it is fraught with high-risk and error prone processes and cite medication management systems. invasive procedures and diagnostic methods. Complexity represents opportunity for unanticipated events, process failures and undesirabic outcomes.
Traditionally a patierit care process fails, accountability was focused on the individual clinician error. However increasing, healthcare is following the lead of other high-risk industries (e.g, chemical, aerospace. nuclear, etc.) that attention to the characteristics the overall system that contribute to the failure. The focus has shifted to identification of systematic weaknesses and vulnerabilities. Increasing the healthcare industry is using prospective system assessment methods to evaluate the hi-h-risk systems and processes.
This paper describes results of collaboration between engineers and community hospitals in Southwest Washington State between 2002 and 2007, in applying prospective system assessment methods to a range of the high-risk healthcare systems and processes. The methods used are Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis and Probabilistic Risk Assessment. The two case studies presented are: 1) an hospital,hospital FMEA oil patient transfer and 2) a risk assessment of mental health patients Who present themselves in a hospital Emergency Department.
ISBN: 978-0-7918-4308-6

Record 46 of 83
Author(s): Talon, A (Talon, A.); Boissier, D (Boissier, D.); Lair, J (Lair, J.)
Title: Service-life assessment of building components: application of evidence theory
Source: CANADIAN JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, 35 (3): 287-300 MAR 2008
Abstract: This paper deals with the assessment of the service life of in-service building components subjected to known environmental and usage conditions. This assessment is complex because of two primary features. First, the assessment has to be carried within a multiscale context: a geometric scale that ranges from the material or elemental to building scale; a range in the complexity of the degradation (phenomena that varies from a single phenomenon to the consideration of several degradation scenarios); a range of possible performance requirements, from one function to several; and consideration, as well, to the time over which the process is carried out that may span from the design stage to that of management and repair. Second, this assessment must also take into consideration the availability and features of service-life data that by nature is heterogeneous, imprecise, uncertain, and incomplete. In this context, a comprehensive methodology is developed using all available data on service life derived from existing methods of service-life assessment of materials, elements or building components. Such data may, for example, be extracted from fundamental studies on durability, accelerated short-term exposure tests, statistical methods, factorial methods, feedback from practice, or expert opinion or other sources. The main stages of this methodology are: (i) identification of all possible degradation scenarios provided by failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA); (ii) collection of all available service-life data (SL-data) associated with these degradation scenarios, transformation of this data into a fuzzy-set format, and assessment of its quality; (iii) processing of unification of data and aggregation of data; and (iv) assessment of the service life of building components. The case study of a window unit allows for: (i) service-life assessment of a building component to be processed by unification of data and aggregation of data and (ii) a conclusion to be deduced.
ISSN: 0315-1468
DOI: 10.1139/L07-109

Record 47 of 83
Author(s): Korayem, MH (Korayem, M. H.); Iravani, A (Iravani, A.)
Title: Improvement of 3P and 6R mechanical robots reliability and quality applying FMEA and QFD approaches
Source: ROBOTICS AND COMPUTER-INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING, 24 (3): 472-487 JUN 2008
Abstract: In the past few years, extending usage of robotic systems has increased the importance of robot reliability and quality. To improve the robot reliability and quality by applying standard approaches such as Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Quality Function Deployment (QFD) during the design of robot is necessary. FMEA is a qualitative method which determines the critical failure modes in robot design. In this method Risk Priority Number is used to sort failures with respect to critical situation. Two examples of mechanical robots are analyzed by using this method and critical failure modes are determined for each robot. Corrective actions are proposed for critical items to modify robots reliability and reduce their risks. Finally by using QFD, quality of these robots is improved according to the customers' requirements. In this method by making four matrixes, optimum values for all technical parameters are determined and the final product has the desired quality. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0736-5845
DOI: 10.1016/j.rcim.2007.05.003

Record 48 of 83
Author(s): Gollomp, B (Gollomp, Bemie)
Title: Quality and reliability facilitator - FMEA
Source: IEEE INSTRUMENTATION & MEASUREMENT MAGAZINE, 11 (2): 58-59 APR 2008
ISSN: 1094-6969

Record 49 of 83
Author(s): Kitamura, Y (Kitamura, Yoshinobu); Takafuji, S (Takafuji, Sunao); Mizoguchi, R (Mizoguchi, Riichiro)
Book Group Author(s): ASME
Title: Towards a reference ontology for functional knowledge interoperability
Source: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME INTERNATIONAL DESIGN ENGINEERING TECHNICAL CONFERENCES AND COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION IN ENGINEERING CONFERENCE 2007, VOL 6, PTS A AND B: 111-120 2008
Conference Title: ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences/Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
Conference Date: SEP 04-07, 2007
Conference Location: Las Vegas, NV
Abstract: Functionality is one of the key aspects of artifact models for design. A function of a device, however, can be captured in different ways in different domains or by different model-authors. Much research on functions has been conducted in the areas of engineering design, functional representation and philosophy, although there are several definitions and notions of functions. We view conceptualization of function is multiplicative in nature: different functions can be captured simultaneously from an objective behavior of an artifact under different teleological contexts of users/designers, or from different viewpoints (perspectives) of a model-author. Such differences become problematic for sharing functional knowledge among engineers.
In this article, we attempt to clarify the differences of such perspectives for capturing functions on the basis of the ontological engineering. On the basis of a generalized model of the standard input-output model in the well-known systematic design methodology, we show descriptive categorization of some upper-level types (classes) of functions with references to some definitions of functions in the literature.
Such upper-level ontological categories of functions are intended to be used as a reference ontology for functional knowledge interoperability. One of the two usages here is to convert functional models between different functional taxonomies. A functional term in a taxonomy is (ideally) categorized into a generic type defined in the reference ontology. It is widely recognized in the literature that such an upper-level ontology helps automatic `mapping discovery' which is to find similarities between two ontologies and determine which concepts represent similar notion. The reference ontology of function might have such an effect. Another usage of the reference ontology is to integrate fault knowledge into functional knowledge and automatic transformation of FMEA sheets. The designer can describe an integrated model of both functional knowledge and fault knowledge. Based on ontology mappings, automatic transformations of FMEA sheets can be realized.
In this article, we discuss the detail of the definitions of the upper-level categories of functions ontologically. Then, we give an overview of usages and effects of the upper-level categories as a reference ontology for functional knowledge interoperability.
ISBN: 978-0-7918-4807-4

Record 50 of 83
Author(s): Liu, Y (Liu, Yu); Huang, HZ (Huang, Hong-Zhong); Miao, Q (Miao, Qiang); Zuo, MJ (Zuo, Ming J.)
Book Group Author(s): ASME
Title: Analysis and evaluation of reliability of diesel engine based on maintenance records
Source: DETC2007: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME INTERNATIONAL DESIGN ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE AND COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION IN ENGINEERING CONFERENCE, VOL 4: 451-456 2008
Conference Title: ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences/Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
Conference Date: SEP 04-07, 2007
Conference Location: Las Vegas, NV
Abstract: Evaluating reliability and finding the critical components of a diesel engine system is a very important process in quality improvement and new product design. In this paper, a series of reliability indexes were applied in diesel engine reliability evaluation based on maintenance records. Several methods including life cycle distribution and FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) were also presented. At the end, a diesel engine (Model 6108ZQ) was used as a case study.
ISBN: 978-0-7918-4805-0

Record 51 of 83
Author(s): Belter, KA (Belter, Kurt A.); Ishii, K (Ishii, Kosuke (Kos)); Karandikar, H (Karandikar, Harshavardhan (Harsh))
Book Group Author(s): ASME
Title: Making design reviews count
Source: DETC2007: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME INTERNATIONAL DESIGN ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE AND COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION IN ENGINEERING CONFERENCE, VOL 4: 969-979 2008
Conference Title: ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences/Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
Conference Date: SEP 04-07, 2007
Conference Location: Las Vegas, NV
Abstract: Design reviews are one of the most established product-development project management techniques to identify and eliminate errors in product design before they physically manifest themselves either in a prototype or in the final product. Design reviews are typically embedded within an overall product-development project management process consisting of multiple stages separated by decision gates. The specific goal, structure and content of a design review depend upon the stage and time at which it is performed. In the process of working with a number of large companies on their technology and product development processes we observed that the actual practice of design reviews often falls well short of the companies' own stated objectives. We examine the reasons for this in our paper, the chief among them being the often misleading application and lack of clarity and brevity in the review process. These problems can be clearly highlighted and rectified by the application of the CVCA and FMEA tools to the design review process itself. Thus, design reviews can be made more efficient and effective and made to count!
ISBN: 978-0-7918-4805-0

Record 52 of 83
Author(s): Mariani, R (Mariani, Riccardo); Boschi, G (Boschi, Gabriele); Colucci, F (Colucci, Federico)
Book Group Author(s): IEEE
Title: Using an innovative SoC-level FMEA methodology to design in compliance with IEC61508
Source: 2007 DESIGN, AUTOMATION & TEST IN EUROPE CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION, VOLS 1-3: 492-497 2007
Book series title: Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Expo
Conference Title: Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Exhibition
Conference Date: APR 16-20, 2007
Conference Location: Nice, FRANCE
Abstract: This paper proposes an innovative methodology, to perform and validate a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) at System-on-Chip (SoC) level. This is done in compliance with the IEC 61508, an international norm for the functional safety of electronic safety-related systems, of which an overview is given in the paper. The Methodology is based on a theory to decompose a digital circuit in "sensible zones" and a tool that automatically extracts these sensible zones from the RTL description. it includes as well a spreadsheet to compute the metrics required by the IEC norm such Diagnostic Coverage and Safe Failure Fraction. The FMEA results are validated by using another tool suite including a fault injection environment. The paper explains how to take benefits of the information provided by such approach and as example it is described how the methodology has been applied to design memory sub-systems to be used in fault robust microcontrollers for automotive applications. This methodology has been approved by TUV-SUD as the flow to assess and validate the Safe Failure Fraction of a given SoC in adherence to IEC 61508.
ISSN: 1530-1591
ISBN: 978-3-9810801-2-4

Record 53 of 83
Author(s): Xu, JG (Xu, Jinghai); Hu, N (Hu, Ning); Chen, Z (Chen, Zhen)
Editor(s): Batra, RC; Qian, LF; Li, XN; Zhou, KD; Dresig, H; Morita, Y; Cheung, E
Title: Reliability analysis for automatic transmission based on AMESim
Source: PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND MECHANICS 2007, VOLS 1 AND 2: 1957-1962 2007
Conference Title: International Conference on Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics
Conference Date: NOV 05-07, 2007
Conference Location: Wuxi, PEOPLES R CHINA
Abstract: This paper presents a qualitative simulation method on reliability analysis, considering that hydraulic control system of automatic transmission (AT) has a complex structure and its failure modes are various, unpredictable and occur randomly. First, by using AMESim, simulation models of hydraulic control systems and planetary gear sets, which worked together in GM 4T65E transmission, are set up. Then failure states of adjustable-displacement oil pump return spring and the No.4 shuttle valve are simulated individually. To cause failure of the adjustable-displacement oil pump return spring, its coefficient of rigidity is set to an infinitesimally positive number. Comparing simulation results of the failed component state with those of normal state, it can be learned that the failed return spring causes the output oil pressure of supply pressure regulation and flow control subsystem to become lower than system requirements. Therefore, AT does not have normal working oil pressure. It causes the shifting actuator to slip. Furthermore, sufficient power can not be produced to enable car to pull away from the curb. Similarly, to cause failure of the No.4 shuttle valve, its coefficient of flow is set to naught. Comparing the simulation results, it can be learned that the failed shuttle valve causes loss of third-gear engagement with the selector in D (Drive) or O/D (Overdrive) position and the engine's braking function with the transmission in first gear (manual low gear). Finally, relationship between failed components and AT's problem is established. After analysis, it can be learned that dynamic simulation using AMESim not only remedies the defect in steady-state simulation, but also opens up an avenue to 'Failure Mode and Effect Analysis' of AT. This becomes the foundation for trouble-shooting overall AT system. The simulation example demonstrates the efficiency of the presented method.

Record 54 of 83
Author(s): Chennagiri, G (Chennagiri, Gurudutt); Iyer, S (Iyer, Satyanarayan)
Book Group Author(s): ASME
Title: New product introduction of fully buffered DIMM - A process perspective
Source: IPACK 2007: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME INTERPACK CONFERENCE 2007, VOL 1: 917-922 2007
Conference Title: ASME InterPACK Conference
Conference Date: JUL 08-12, 2007
Conference Location: Vancouver, CANADA
Abstract: The introduction of new products to the manufacturing environment is a challenging task. The extent of this challenge varies depending on the complexity of the product being introduced. Fully Buffered Dual In-line Memory Modules (FBDIMMs). which have been it recent introduction to file memory? industry, pose several unique challenges that need to be addressed, The objective of this study was to first comprehend file distinguishing features of this product against a generic memory module front an assembly process perspective and address the associated issues
Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) was conducted to highlight (lie areas of concern from a process and reliability stand point, Processes were developed to mitigate [lie occurrence and severity, rate or the identified failure modes. The assembly of heat sinks oil these modules is a unique aspect and required special tools and fixtures. Various issues that were critical to quality were encountered while assembling the heat sinks, Centering of heat sinks over the module after assembly was also observed to be critical. Misaligned heat sinks Call obstruct the insertion of modules into test and application sockets, A special tool was designed to address this issued Upon installation of the new tool. a capability study was performed to validate the process. Removal of the heat sink for component rework purposes was also a concern. This was mainly due to the adhesion of the Thermal Interface Material (TIM) material used oil the heat sink with the components on the board. The adhesion led to component separation front the board during the removal process and required it special process to miligate this issue. The methods used to address these issues ire reported, The product reliability was validated using thermal cycling. shock and vibration tests. The results of these tests are also reported in the paper.
ISBN: 978-0-7918-4277-5

Record 55 of 83
Author(s): Lough, KG (Lough, Katie Grantham)
Book Group Author(s): ASME
Title: Detailed risk analysis for failure prevention in conceptual design: Red (risk in early design) based probabilistic risk assessments
Source: 19TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DESIGN THEORY AND METHODOLOGY/1ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MICRO AND NANO SYSTEMS, VOL 3, PART A AND B: 385-394 2008
Conference Title: ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences/Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
Conference Date: SEP 04-07, 2007
Conference Location: Las Vegas, NV
Abstract: Avoiding product recalls and failures is a must for companies to remain successful in the consumer product industry. Large numbers of failed products result in significant profit losses do to repair or replacement costs as well as untraceable costs of reputation damage among customer bases. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is key to preventing product failures. When risks are adequately identified and assessed the potential product failures can be mitigated and save lives as well as company profit. Risk mitigation is more effective the earlier it can be applied in the design process; therefore, the identification and assessment of risk through PRA techniques is most beneficial to the company when employed early in the design process. This paper presents new techniques for performing four common PRAs, preliminary hazards analysis (PHA), failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), fault tree analysis (FTA), and event tree analysis (ETA), during the conceptual phase of design, when products have yet to assume a physical form. The backbone for the application of these PRA techniques during the conceptual design phase is the Risk in Early Design (RED) Method. RED generates a listing of potential product risk based on historical failure occurrences. These risks are categorized by function, which enables this preliminary risk assessment to be performed during conceptual design. A risk analysis is performed for a bicycle that demonstrates the powerful failure prevention ability of RED and PRA during conceptual product design with a Consumer Product Safety Commission recall.
ISBN: 978-0-7918-4804-3

Record 56 of 83
Author(s): Cudney, E (Cudney, Elizabeth); Drain, D (Drain, David); Lough, KG (Lough, Katie Grantham)
Editor(s): Savoie, M; Aguilar, J; Chu, HW; Zinn, CD; Mura, G; Andina, D
Title: Development to high-volume manufacturing: Reducing the risks
Source: CITSA 2007/CCCT 2007: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CYBERNETICS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES, SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS : INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTING, COMMUNICATIONS AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, VOL III, POST-CONFERENCE ISSUE, PROCEEDINGS: 128-133 2007
Conference Title: 4th International Conference on Cybernetics and Information Technologies, Systems and Applications/5th Int Conf on Computing, Communications and Control Technologies
Conference Date: JUL 12-15, 2007
Conference Location: Orlando, FL
Abstract: Process problems that are detected during the development process can be corrected relatively inexpensively. However, process problems that are transferred to manufacturing for high-volume production can be extremely expensive to correct. Failure Modes and Effect Analysis is a tool which identifies potential failure modes, the effect(s) of the failure mode, and quantifies risks. FMEA has not achieved its potential as a fisk-management tool in many industries. This paper discusses common errors in performing Failure Modes and Effects Analysis as well as techniques for improving its use by integrating commonly available statistical methods.
ISBN: 978-1-934272-24-4

Record 57 of 83
Author(s): Hu, Y (Hu, Yida); Podder, T (Podder, Tarun); Buzurovic, I (Buzurovic, Ivan); Yan, K (Yan, Kaiguo); Ng, WS (Ng, Wan Sing); Yu, Y (Yu, Yan)
Book Group Author(s): IEEE
Title: Hazard analysis of EUCLIDIAN: An image-guided robotic brachytherapy system
Source: 2007 ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE ENGINEERING IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY SOCIETY, VOLS 1-16: 1249-1252 2007
Book series title: PROCEEDINGS OF ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE ENGINEERING IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY SOCIETY
Conference Title: 29th Annual International Conference of the IEEE-Engineering-in-Medicine-and-Biology-Society
Conference Date: AUG 22-26, 2007
Conference Location: Lyon, FRANCE
Abstract: Robotic assistance can help clinicians to improve the flexibility of needle insertion and accuracy of seed deposition. However, the robotic platform is a safety critical system for its automated operational mode. Thus, it is important to perform Hazard Identification & Safety Insurance Control (HISIC) for securing the safety of a medical robotic system. In this paper, we have performed HISIC for our robotic platform, called Endo-Uro Computer Lattice for Intratumoral Delivery, Implementation, and Ablation with Nanosensing (ECLIDIAN) The definition and requirements of the system are described by Unified Modeling Language (UML). Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) are executed for the principles of HISIC, such as hazard identification, safety insurance control, safety critical limit, monitoring and control. FMEA combined with UML can also be implemented to ensure reliability of the human operation. On the basis of safety control index and fuzzy mathematics, safety effective value is outlined to assess the validity of safety insurance control for robotic system. The above principles and methods are feasible and effective for hazard analysis during the development of the robotic system.
ISSN: 1094-687X
ISBN: 978-1-4244-0787-3

Record 58 of 83
Author(s): Thivel, PX (Thivel, P. -X); Bultel, Y (Bultel, Y.); Delpech, F (Delpech, F.)
Title: Risk analysis of a biomass combustion process using MOSAR and FMEA methods
Source: JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, 151 (1): 221-231 FEB 28 2008
Abstract: Thermal and chemical conversion processes that convert in energy the sewage sludge, pasty waste and other pre-processed waste are increasingly common, for economic and ecological reasons. Fluidized bed combustion is currently one of the most promising methods of energy conversion, since it bums biomass very efficiently, and produces only very small quantities of sulphur and nitrogen oxides. The hazards associated with biomass combustion processes are fire, explosion and poisoning from the combustion gases (CO, etc.). The risk analysis presented in this paper uses the MADS-MOSAR methodology, applied to a semi-industrial pilot scheme comprising a fluidization column, a conventional cyclone, two natural gas burners and a continuous supply of biomass. The methodology uses a generic approach, with an initial macroscopic stage where hazard sources are identified, scenarios for undesired events are recognized and ranked using a grid of Severity x Probability and safety barriers suggested. A microscopic stage then analyzes in detail the major risks identified during the first stage. This analysis may use various different tools, such as HAZOP, FMEA, etc.: our analysis is based on FMEA. Using MOSAR, we were able to identify five subsystems: the reactor (fluidized bed and centrifuge), the fuel and biomass supply lines, the operator and the environment. When we drew up scenarios based on these subsystems, we found that malfunction of the gas supply burners was a common trigger in many scenarios. Our subsequent microscopic analysis, therefore, focused on the burners, looking at the ways they failed, and at the effects and criticality of those failures (FMEA). We were, thus, able to identify a number of critical factors such as the incoming gas lines and the ignition electrode. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0304-3894
DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.05.072

Record 59 of 83
Author(s): Su, CT (Su, Chao-Ton); Chou, CJ (Chou, Chia-Jen)
Title: A systematic methodology for the creation of Six Sigma projects: A case study of semiconductor foundry
Source: EXPERT SYSTEMS WITH APPLICATIONS, 34 (4): 2693-2703 MAY 4 2008
Abstract: Nowadays, Six Sigma has been widely adopted in a variety of industries in the world and it has become one of the most important subjects of debate in quality management. Six Sigma is a well-structured methodology that can help a company achieve expected goal through continuous project improvement. Some challenges, however, have emerged with the execution of the Six Sigma. For examples, how are feasible projects generated? How are critical Six Sigma projects selected given the finite resources of the organization? This study aims to develop a novel approach to create critical Six Sigma projects and identify the priority of these projects. Firstly, the projects are created from two aspects, namely, organization's business strategic policies and voice of customer. Secondly, an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model is implemented to evaluate the benefits of each project and; a hierarchical failure mode effects analysis (FMEA) is also developed to evaluate the risk of each project; and from which the priority of Six Sigma projects can be determined. Finally, based on the project benefits and risk, projects can be defined as Green Belt, Black Belt, or others types of projects. An empirical case study of semiconductor foundry will be utilized to explore the effectiveness of our proposed approach. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0957-4174
DOI: 10.1016/j.eswa.2007.05.014

Record 60 of 83
Author(s): Sturek, J (Sturek, J.); Ramakrishnan, S (Ramakrishnan, S.); Nagula, P (Nagula, P.); Srihari, K (Srihari, K.)
Editor(s): Cardoso, J; Cordeiro, J; Filipe, J
Title: A decision support system for predicting the reliability of a robotic dispensing system
Source: ICEIS 2007: PROCEEDINGS OF THE NINTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENTERPRISE INFORMATION SYSTEMS - ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS : 289-296 2007
Conference Title: 9th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS 2007)
Conference Date: JUN 12-16, 2007
Conference Location: Funchal, PORTUGAL
Abstract: Decision Support Systems (DSS) are information systems designed to support individual and collective decision-making. This research presents the development of a DSS to facilitate the prediction of the reliability of a Robotic Dispensing System (RDS). While it is extremely critical for design teams to identify the potential defects in the product before releasing them to the customers, predicting reliability is extremely difficult due to the absence of actual failure data. Design teams often adopt tools such as Failure Mode Effects and Analysis (FMEA) to analyze the various failure modes in the product. There are commercial softwares that facilitate predicting reliability and conducting FMEA. However, there are limited approaches that combine these two critical aspects of product design. The objective of this research is to develop a DSS that would help design teams track the overall system reliability, while concurrently using the data from the alpha testing phase to perform the FMEA. Hence, this DSS is capable of calculating the age-specific reliability value for a Robotic Dispensing System (RDS), in addition to storing the defect information, for the FMEA process. The Risk Priority Number (RPN) calculated using the data gathered serves as the basis for the design team to identify the modifications to the product design. The tool, developed in Microsoft Access(R), would be subsequently utilized to track on-field performance of the RDS. This would facilitate continuous monitoring of the RDS from the customer site, especially during its "infant mortality" period.
ISBN: 978-972-8865-89-4

Record 61 of 83
Author(s): Yuan, CM (Yuan Changming)
Editor(s): Wang, C; Guo, WJ; Cheng, JL
Title: Research on safety evaluation method for underground metal mines
Source: MINE HAZARDS PREVENTION AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY: 465-469 2007
Conference Title: International Conference on Mine Hazards Prevention and Control
Conference Date: OCT 17, 2007
Conference Location: Qingdao, PEOPLES R CHINA
Abstract: In this paper, a four-stage safety evaluation method, SCL-FMEA, FTA, ETA -Risk Evaluation.Synthesis Safety Management, has been put forward, through a vast of amount of investigations and analyses to the mining processes and the safety condition in the underground metal mines in china. The four-stage safety evaluation method is mainly used for the evaluation of the major processes and auxiliary facilities and synthesis safety management in underground metal mines, on the basis of the traditional Safety Check List (SCL). According to the actual conditions of the mining equipment and working post, the Fault Model Effect Analysis method has been adopted and the Fault Tree Analysis/Event Tree Analysis have been used for the major accident types in the mines. To calculate the risk rate, the-risk evaluation is carried out in accordance with the statistics and standard of the nation. At the same time, the partition, of, evaluation unit, SCL' check item and rule, FMEA' contents, FTA and ETA' objects, Risk rate account and evaluation rule, etc are established. The roles and prospects of the safety evaluation and the, problems required to be explained in underground metal mines are simply showed.
ISBN: 978-7-03-019006-2

Record 62 of 83
Author(s): Li, G (Li, Guo); Gao, JM (Gao, Jianmin); Chen, FM (Chen, Fumin)
Book Group Author(s): IEEE
Title: Formal support for failure knowledge modeling and diagnostic reasoning using polychromatic sets
Source: 2007 5TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS, VOLS 1-3: 645-650 2007
Book series title: IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN)
Conference Title: 5th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics
Conference Date: JUN 23-27, 2007
Conference Location: Vienna, AUSTRIA
Abstract: Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is a traditional safety analysis method that has a worldwide recognition across many industries. However, there are documented limitations to the technique, which make it difficult for direct conversion to the diagnosis models. This paper aims to contribute to the reuse of FMEA knowledge through a novel knowledge modeling approach. Taking the structure model into consideration, we define the failure modes as the inherent component properties at different hierarchical levels and propose a formal failure knowledge representation model based on the polychromatic sets theory. It is a structured modeling technique for representing FMEA causal knowledge in unified mathematical language, which in turn provides the framework for organizing the failure modes, the causes and effects more systematically and completely. Using the iterative search process operated on the reasoning matrices, the diagnosis reasoning for more than one top-level failure event can be realized automatically. The research shows this new approach has formed mathematical foundation which can make significant progress in FNMA knowledge formalization.
ISSN: 1935-4576
ISBN: 978-1-4244-0850-4

Record 63 of 83
Author(s): Seiwert, B (Seiwert, Bettina); Hayen, H (Hayen, Heiko); Karst, U (Karst, Uwe)
Title: Differential labeling of free and disulfide-bound thiol functions in proteins
Source: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR MASS SPECTROMETRY, 19 (1): 1-7 JAN 2008
Abstract: A method for the simultaneous determination of the number of free cysteine groups and disulfide-bound cysteine groups in proteins has been developed based on the sequential labeling of free and bound thiol functionalities with two ferrocene-based maleimide reagents. Liquid chromatography/electrochemistry/mass spectrometry was used to assign the N-(2-ferroceneethyl)maleimide (FEM) labeled free cysteine functionalities in a tryptic digest mixture, whereas a precursor ion scan enables the detection of peptides with ferrocenecarboxylic acid-(2-maleimidoyl)ethylamide (FMEA) labeled disulfide-bound cysteine groups after reduction. Fragment spectra of the labeled peptides yield an excellent coverage of b-type and y-type ions. The ferrocene labeled cysteines were fragmented as 412 Da (FEM) and 455 Da (FMEA). These fragment masses are significantly higher than unlabeled amino acids or dipeptides and are easily detected. The position of free and disulfide-bound cysteine may therefore be assigned in an amino acid sequence.
ISSN: 1044-0305
DOI: 10.1016/j.jasms.2007.10.001

Record 64 of 83
Author(s): Cheng, ZH (Cheng, Zhonghua); Wu, S (Wu, Su); Wang, JZ (Wang, Jianzhao); Zhang, ZW (Zhang, Zhanwu); Bian, JL (Bian, Jinlu); Gao, Q (Gao, Qi)
Editor(s): Aven, T; Vinnem, JE
Title: The maintenance model for the items with compound failure modes
Source: RISK, RELIABILITY AND SOCIETAL SAFETY, VOLS 1-3 - VOL 1: SPECIALISATION TOPICS; VOL 2: THEMATIC TOPICS; VOL 3: APPLICATIONS TOPICS : 1115-1119 2007
Book series title: Proceedings and Monographs in Engineering, Water and Earth Sciences
Conference Title: European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2007)
Conference Date: JUN 25-27, 2007
Conference Location: Stavanger, NORWAY
Conference Host: Univ Stavanger
Abstract: Based on failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) of hydraulic system of a certain production plant, this paper finds that main cause of hydraulic system failure is failure mode of wearing and cracking of counter-recoil rod. According to failure mode of wearing, states of counter-recoil rod may be identified as three kinds: normal, potential failure and function failure. According to failure mode of cracking, states of counter-recoil rod may be identified as two kinds: normal and function failure. Under maintenance cost and failure risk are both considered, how to get optimal inspection interval for the counter-recoil rod has become an imperative issue for operators and managements of plant. The paper, by abstracting the practical problems and applying stochastic process methods, develops maintenance model (cost model and failure risk model) for the items with compound failure modes to calculate the risks and costs associated with an inspection strategy. At the same time, procedure and methods for modeling are also presented. Finally, by way of numerical example, the relations between maintenance cost and failure risk of the item are discussed, and optimal inspection interval is determined. According to the optimal inspection interval, failure risk of item can be controlled and maintenance cost can be saved. The model and method in this paper may be directly applied to solving homologous problems.
ISBN: 978-0-415-44786-7

Record 65 of 83
Author(s): Compare, M (Compare, M.); Gigante, G (Gigante, G.); Travascio, L (Travascio, L.); Vozella, A (Vozella, A.)
Editor(s): Aven, T; Vinnem, JE
Title: Monte Carlo method and risk assessment
Source: RISK, RELIABILITY AND SOCIETAL SAFETY, VOLS 1-3 - VOL 1: SPECIALISATION TOPICS; VOL 2: THEMATIC TOPICS; VOL 3: APPLICATIONS TOPICS : 1153-1158 2007
Book series title: Proceedings and Monographs in Engineering, Water and Earth Sciences
Conference Title: European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2007)
Conference Date: JUN 25-27, 2007
Conference Location: Stavanger, NORWAY
Conference Host: Univ Stavanger
Abstract: The Monte Carlo method is widely used in the evaluation of complex system reliability and safety. This paper presents its implementation for the risk assessment of a stratospheric balloon mission. The results obtained by the simulation method have been compared with those obtained using the classical approaches (FTA, FMEA, ETA) highly recommended by standards. Some interesting conclusions could be derived.
ISBN: 978-0-415-44786-7

Record 66 of 83
Author(s): Lebecki, K (Lebecki, K.); Rosmus, P (Rosmus, P.)
Editor(s): Aven, T; Vinnem, JE
Title: Quantitative risk assessment of natural hazards in mining based on the EN61508 methodology
Source: RISK, RELIABILITY AND SOCIETAL SAFETY, VOLS 1-3 - VOL 1: SPECIALISATION TOPICS; VOL 2: THEMATIC TOPICS; VOL 3: APPLICATIONS TOPICS : 1231-1236 2007
Book series title: Proceedings and Monographs in Engineering, Water and Earth Sciences
Conference Title: European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2007)
Conference Date: JUN 25-27, 2007
Conference Location: Stavanger, NORWAY
Conference Host: Univ Stavanger
Abstract: Risk assessment when done properly during the planning stage for a production process is the deciding factor influencing work safety. In underground mining practice the level of tolerable risk for a given process is determined solely by confirming that safety regulations requirements are met. However, it does not mean that safety level for a given process is the highest possible. To achieve this goal clear risk assessment criteria are needed.
This paper describes the new approach to quantitative risk assessment based on the EN 61508 methodology and also the concept of functional safety. For methane and/or coal dust explosion hazards the scenarios of the event are given in the form of a bow-tic tree. Analytical methods of FTA and ETA are used to assess the risk level. The tolerable risk threshold is calculated according to ALARP methodology, using the analytical methods of hazard identification - HAZOP and FMEA. Quantitatively expressed risk levels are calculated by the bow-tie tree method which specifies the confidence level for the given protection layer.
ISBN: 978-0-415-44786-7

Record 67 of 83
Author(s): Pickard, K (Pickard, K.); Leopold, T (Leopold, T.); Dieter, A (Dieter, A.); Bertsche, B (Bertsche, B.)
Editor(s): Aven, T; Vinnem, JE
Title: Validation of similar systems based on FMEA assessment
Source: RISK, RELIABILITY AND SOCIETAL SAFETY, VOLS 1-3 - VOL 1: SPECIALISATION TOPICS; VOL 2: THEMATIC TOPICS; VOL 3: APPLICATIONS TOPICS : 1859-1863 2007
Book series title: Proceedings and Monographs in Engineering, Water and Earth Sciences
Conference Title: European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2007)
Conference Date: JUN 25-27, 2007
Conference Location: Stavanger, NORWAY
Conference Host: Univ Stavanger
Abstract: In today's developments it is important to know the future failure behaviour of the products as soon as possible. In many cases this kind of prediction is not possible and therefore there is a need for at least a qualitative option for a concept comparison, based on which an estimation in regards to the potential failure behaviour or ratio the newly developed product has to the former one. Therefore, a new approach will be shown with which such a consideration will be enabled. This comparison procedure will use already existing data and, although the method is based on FMEA assessment values, the new approach will not use the classic RPN classification, because these classifications cannot be used for such kind of predictions or considerations. For the improvement of its usage, the integration of a so called confidence level will be shown. The procedure and the generation of the confidence level, and in particular the two possible options will be shown with an example and discussed in detail.
ISBN: 978-0-415-44786-7

Record 68 of 83
Author(s): Ricco, R (Ricco, R.); Pickard, K (Pickard, K.); Bertsche, B (Bertsche, B.)
Editor(s): Aven, T; Vinnem, JE
Title: The nature of product liability and risk management methods
Source: RISK, RELIABILITY AND SOCIETAL SAFETY, VOLS 1-3 - VOL 1: SPECIALISATION TOPICS; VOL 2: THEMATIC TOPICS; VOL 3: APPLICATIONS TOPICS : 2025-2032 2007
Book series title: Proceedings and Monographs in Engineering, Water and Earth Sciences
Conference Title: European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2007)
Conference Date: JUN 25-27, 2007
Conference Location: Stavanger, NORWAY
Conference Host: Univ Stavanger
Abstract: Product Liability is a broad and very complex issue and we are going to try to give an easy explanation of the basic aspects of the matter. As in recent times safety and reliability of products have become a specific requirements to be satisfied by producers in order to be exempted from liability related to damages triggered by the use of the products, it is truly important for the same producers as well as for users to be acknowledged of the central problems of the allotment of liability in case of accidents. The basic legal aspects of product liability are the object of this paper. To illustrate the possible influence of qualitative risk prevention on the product liability, the FMEA, the most common qualitative and preventive method, is chosen.
ISBN: 978-0-415-44786-7

Record 69 of 83
Author(s): Calori, IC (Calori, I. Canova); Stalhane, T (Stalhane, T.)
Editor(s): Aven, T; Vinnem, JE
Title: FMEA and BBN for robustness analysis in web-based applications
Source: RISK, RELIABILITY AND SOCIETAL SAFETY, VOLS 1-3 - VOL 1: SPECIALISATION TOPICS; VOL 2: THEMATIC TOPICS; VOL 3: APPLICATIONS TOPICS : 2341-2347 2007
Book series title: Proceedings and Monographs in Engineering, Water and Earth Sciences
Conference Title: European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2007)
Conference Date: JUN 25-27, 2007
Conference Location: Stavanger, NORWAY
Conference Host: Univ Stavanger
Abstract: In this paper we present a general framework for conducting robustness analysis early in the development life cycle of web-based systems. This framework exploits the robustness failure modes and evaluates the impact of modifications that can be applied to reduce the severity of these failures. First, the system is systematically decomposed in its components using Jacobson's analysis. Next, with Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) we identify all failure modes, causes and effects. Finally, by using Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) we model each subsystem and evaluate failure severities and possible improvements. A more complex model of the system can also be built up by integrating the subsystem models, giving a better understanding of the overall system behavior. We present a practical example and we discuss the benefits of applying this framework and BBN models to analyze the robustness of web-based systems.
ISBN: 978-0-415-44786-7

Record 70 of 83
Author(s): Hu, L (Hu, L.); Wu, Y (Wu, Y.); Wang, J (Wang, J.); Wang, S (Wang, S.)
Group Author(s): FDS Team
Book Group Author(s): IEEE
Title: Preliminary Probabilistic safety assessment of chinese dual-functional lithium lead-test blanket module for ITER
Source: 22ND IEEE/NPSS SYMPOSIUM ON FUSION ENGINEERING: 56-59 2007
Conference Title: 22nd IEEE/NPSS Symposium on Fusion Engineering
Conference Date: JUN 17-21, 2007
Conference Location: Albuquerque, NM
Abstract: A Dual Functional Lithium Lead (DFLL) Test Blanket Module (TBM) concept for testing in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been proposed. The safety assessment of DFL-TBM has been carried out applying the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) approach. The accident sequences have been modeled and quantified through the event tree technique, which allows identifying all possible combinations of success or failure of the safety systems in responding to a selection of initiating events. The identification of Potential Initiator Events is provided by the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) procedure. The outcome of the analysis shows that DFLL-TBM is quite safe and presents no significant hazard to the environment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of safety systems has been performed.
ISBN: 978-1-4244-1193-1

Record 71 of 83
Author(s): Parker, DJ (Parker, David J.); Papadopoulos, YI (Papadopoulos, Yiannis I.)
Book Group Author(s): IEEE
Title: Optimisation of networked control systems using model-based safety analysis techniques
Source: 2007 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NETWORKING, SENSING, AND CONTROL, VOLS 1 AND 2: 425-430 2007
Conference Title: IEEE International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control
Conference Date: APR 15-17, 2007
Conference Location: London, ENGLAND
Abstract: We propose a novel approach to the optimization of networked embedded safety critical systems in which Genetic Algorithms are used to find optimal tradeoffs among safety, reliability and cost in the design of such systems. The aim is to automatically evolve initial designs that do not necessarily meet dependability requirements to designs that fulfil such requirements with minimal costs. The approach departs from earlier work in that the safety and reliability model (i.e. a set of system fault trees) is automatically synthesised from an engineering model of the system. It also moves beyond the classical '' success-failure '' model by introducing a failure scheme in which components can exhibit more that one failure modes which include the loss but also the commission of functions as well as value and timing failures. We discuss the approach, and compare the performance of two implementations, based on two different Genetic Algorithms, which have been applied on a set of well known benchmark examples.
ISBN: 978-1-4244-1075-0

Record 72 of 83
Author(s): Eom, SW (Eom, Seung-Wook); Kim, MK (Kim, Min-Kyu); Kim, IJ (Kim, Ick-Jun); Moon, SI (Moon, Seong-In); Sun, YK (Sun, Yang-Kook); Kim, HS (Kim, Hyun-Soo)
Title: Life prediction and reliability assessment of lithium secondary batteries
Source: JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES, 174 (2): 954-958 DEC 6 2007
Conference Title: 13th International Meeting on Lithium Batteries
Conference Date: JUN 18-23, 2006
Conference Location: Biarritz, FRANCE
Abstract: Reliability assessment of lithium secondary batteries was mainly considered. Shape parameter (beta) and scale parameter (eta) were calculated from experimental data based on cycle life test. We also examined safety characteristics of lithium secondary batteries. As proposed by IEC 62133 (2002), we had performed all of the safety/abuse tests such as 'mechanical abuse tests', 'environmental abuse tests', 'electrical abuse tests'.
This paper describes the cycle life of lithium secondary batteries, FMEA (failure modes and effects analysis) and the safety/abuse tests we had performed. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN: 0378-7753
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.06.208

Record 73 of 83
Author(s): Sharma, RK (Sharma, Rajiv Kumar); Kumar, D (Kumar, Dinesh); Kumar, P (Kumar, Pradeep)
Title: Modeling system behavior for risk and reliability analysis using KBARM
Source: QUALITY AND RELIABILITY ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL, 23 (8): 973-998 DEC 2007
Abstract: With advances in technology and the growing complexity of technological systems, the job of the reliability/system analyst has become more challenging as they have to study, characterize, measure and analyze the behavior of systems with the help of various traditional analytical (mathematical and statistical) techniques, which require knowledge of the precise numerical probabilities and component functional dependencies, information which is difficult to obtain. Even if data are available they are often inaccurate and are thus subject to uncertainty, i.e. historical records can only represent the past behavior and may be unable to predict the future behavior of the equipment. To cope with such situations, the knowledge-based approximate reasoning methodologies (KBARMs) provide necessary help. Among them, the fuzzy and grey methodologies are the most viable and effective tools for coping with imprecise, uncertain and subjective information in a consistent and logical manner. In this paper, the authors present a methodological and structured approach (which makes use of both qualitative and quantitative techniques) to model, analyze and predict the failure behavior of two units, namely the forming and press units of a paper machine, using KBARMs. Various system parameters such as repair time, failure rate, mean time between failures, availability and expected number of failures are computed to quantify the system behavior in terms of fuzzy, crisp and defuzzified values. Furthermore, a risk ranking approach based on fuzzy and grey relational analysis is discussed to prioritize various failure causes associated with the components in failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA). Copyright (C) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
ISSN: 0748-8017
DOI: 10.1002/qre.849

Record 74 of 83
Author(s): Stalhane, T (Stalhane, Tor); Sindre, G (Sindre, Guttorm)
Editor(s): Parent, C; Schewe, KD; Storey, VC; Thalheim, B
Title: A comparison of two approaches to safety analysis based on use cases
Source: CONCEPTUAL MODELING - ER 2007, PROCEEDINGS, 4801: 423-437 2007
Book series title: LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
Conference Title: 26th International Conference on Conceptual Modeling
Conference Date: NOV 05-09, 2007
Conference Location: Auckland, NEW ZEALAND
Abstract: Engineering has a long tradition in analyzing the safety of mechanical, electrical and electronic systems. Important methods like HazOp and FMEA have also been adopted by the software engineering community. The misuse case method, on the other hand, has been developed by the software community as an alternative to FMEA and preliminary HazOp for software development. To compare the two methods misuse case and FMEA we have run a small experiment involving 42 third year software engineering students. In the experiment, the students should identify and analyze failure modes from one of the use cases for a commercial electronic patient journals system. The results of the experiment show that on the average, the group that used misuse cases identified and analyzed more user related failure modes than the persons using FMEA. In addition, the persons who used the misuse cases scored better on perceived ease of use and intention to use.
ISSN: 0302-9743
ISBN: 978-3-540-75562-3

Record 75 of 83
Author(s): Yan, W (Yan Wen); Liu, JH (Liu Jinhua); Jia, CZ (Jia Changzhi); Chen, LM (Chen Liangming)
Editor(s): Wen, TD
Title: Research on maintenance decision of gun based on RCM theory
Source: ISTM/2007: 7TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON TEST AND MEASUREMENT, VOLS 1-7, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS: 3315-3318 2007
Conference Title: 7th International Symposium on Test Measurement
Conference Date: AUG 05-08, 2007
Conference Location: Beijing, PEOPLES R CHINA
Abstract: Based on theory of reliability-centered maintenance (RCM), the maintenance level of guns was analyzed, thus the organizational-level maintenance items were decided and maintenance level was supposed In view of actuality and development of maintenance and support system, we put forward assumption of maintenance and support modes based on the analysis of deployment of administration organization and maintenance organization. The results can provide, scientific references to maintenance and support of guns in the army.
ISBN: 978-988-99684-3-4

Record 76 of 83
Author(s): Wei, Z (Wei Zheng); Hu, B (Hu Baioing); Zha, F (Zha Feng); Wang, TT (Wang TingTing)
Editor(s): Wen, TD
Title: Research on a method for analyzing and predicting the life of gyro based on acoustic signal processing
Source: ISTM/2007: 7TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON TEST AND MEASUREMENT, VOLS 1-7, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS: 4093-4096 2007
Conference Title: 7th International Symposium on Test Measurement
Conference Date: AUG 05-08, 2007
Conference Location: Beijing, PEOPLES R CHINA
Abstract: As an important part of float-type gyroscope used in stabilized compass, the gyro motor aerodynamic bearing is recognized as the life bottleneck according to the Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMEA). Considering the failure mechanism and running characteristics of the aerodynamic bearing, a method of life prediction based on gyro acoustic signal testing and processing was presented in the paper The signal was collected by data acquisition system. De-noised by wavelet transform, the acoustic signal was separated from the original low SNR collected signal. The reprocessing procedure was accomplished by wavelet package decomposition. The typical signal token, which reflect performance of the aerodynamic bearing, was recognized as the "life off speed" and disturbance in the starting and even running stage separately, and they were found to be apparent in the wavelet package coefficients. So the performance and life of the gyroscopes were properly predicted.
ISBN: 978-988-99684-3-4

Record 77 of 83
Author(s): Lian, GY (Lian Guangyao); Huang, KL (Huang Kaoli); Wei, ZL (Wei Zhonglin); Xue, KX (Xue Kaixuan)
Editor(s): Cui, J; Jiming, Q
Title: Research of testability knowledge acquisition technology based on functional and structural model
Source: ICEMI 2007: PROCEEDINGS OF 2007 8TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENT & INSTRUMENTS, VOL IV: 754-757 2007
Conference Title: 8th International Conference on Electronic Measurement and Instruments
Conference Date: AUG 16-18, 2007
Conference Location: Xian, PEOPLES R CHINA
Abstract: Aiming at the practical problems of lacking testability knowledge and difficult in knowledge acquisition, it puts forward a knowledge acquisition method based on functional model. It analyzes fault mechanics from using test signal flow, builds models in fault space, guides testability design by FTA and FMEA, acquires fault symptom information by functional simulation, acquires testability knowledge by comprehensive analysis the results at last. The reliability of knowledge acquired by this method is very high, which has important meaning in improving the testability design level for products.

Record 78 of 83
Author(s): Bai, HW (Bai, Haowei)
Book Group Author(s): IEEE
Title: Analysis of a SAE AS5643 Mil-1394b based high-speed avionics network architecture for space and defense applications
Source: 2007 IEEE AEROSPACE CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-9: 2390-2398 2007
Book series title: IEEE AEROSPACE CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS
Conference Title: 2007 IEEE Aerospace Conference
Conference Date: MAR 03-10, 2007
Conference Location: Big Sky, MT
Abstract: To satisfy the increasing needs of more information transmission among subsystems, and to minimize the latency of data transmission between high-speed processors, the avionics interconnection in future aerospace vehicles is required to provide high bandwidth data path. IEEE 1394 was designed as a high speed (up to 3.2 Gbps) data bus for consumer electronics. The Lockheed Martin's Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program was the first significant implementation of IEEE 1394b for aerospace vehicles. Its approach has been standardized by SAE AS5643. This article is to explain the standard in details and provide insights into it, using failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) tools. The analysis results and recommendations could be used for ongoing and future aerospace vehicle programs such as NASA Orion crew exploration vehicle.
ISSN: 1095-323X
ISBN: 978-1-4244-0524-4

Record 79 of 83
Author(s): Zambrano, L (Zambrano, Lyda); Sublette, K (Sublette, Kerry); Duncan, K (Duncan, Kathleen); Thoma, G (Thoma, Greg)
Title: Probabilistic reliability modeling for oil exploration & production (E&P) facilities in the tallgrass prairie preserve
Source: RISK ANALYSIS, 27 (5): 1323-1333 OCT 2007
Abstract: The aging domestic oil production infrastructure represents a high risk to the environment because of the type of fluids being handled (oil and brine) and the potential for accidental release of these fluids into sensitive ecosystems. Currently, there is not a quantitative risk model directly applicable to onshore oil exploration and production (E&P) facilities. We report on a probabilistic reliability model created for onshore exploration and production (E&P) facilities. Reliability theory, failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), and event trees were used to develop the model estimates of the failure probability of typical oil production equipment. Monte Carlo simulation was used to translate uncertainty in input parameter values to uncertainty in the model output. The predicted failure rates were calibrated to available failure rate information by adjusting probability density function parameters used as random variates in the Monte Carlo simulations. The mean and standard deviation of normal variate distributions from which the Weibull distribution characteristic life was chosen were used as adjustable parameters in the model calibration. The model was applied to oil production leases in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve, Oklahoma. We present the estimated failure probability due to the combination of the most significant failure modes associated with each type of equipment (pumps, tanks, and pipes). The results show that the estimated probability of failure for tanks is about the same as that for pipes, but that pumps have much lower failure probability. The model can provide necessary equipment reliability information for proactive risk management at the lease level by providing quantitative information to base allocation of maintenance resources to high-risk equipment that will minimize both lost production and ecosystem damage.
ISSN: 0272-4332
DOI: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2007.00961.x

Record 80 of 83
Author(s): Brown, DW (Brown, Douglas W.); Kalgren, PW (Kalgren, Patrick W.); Byington, CS (Byington, Carl S.); Roemer, MJ (Roemer, Michael J.)
Title: Electronic prognostics - A case study using global positioning system (GPS)
Source: MICROELECTRONICS RELIABILITY, 47 (12): 1874-1881 DEC 2007
Abstract: Prognostic health management (PHM) of electronic systems presents challenges traditionally viewed as either insurmountable or otherwise not worth the cost of pursuit. Recent changes in weapons platform acquisition and support requirements have spurred renewed interest in electronics PHM, revealing possible applications, accessible data sources, and previously unexplored predictive techniques. The approach, development, and validation of electronic prognostics for a radio frequency (RF) system are discussed in this paper. Conventional PHM concepts are refined to develop a three-tier failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA). The proposed method identifies prognostic features by performing device, circuit, and system-level modeling. Accelerated failure testing validates the identified prognostic features. The results of the accelerated failure tests accurately predict the remaining useful life of a commercial off the shelf (COTS) GPS receiver to within +/- 5 thermal cycles. The solution has applicability to a broad class of mixed digital/analog circuitry, including radar and software defined radio. (c) 2007 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
ISSN: 0026-2714
DOI: 10.1016/j.microrel.2007.02.020

Record 81 of 83
Author(s): Arvanitoyannis, IS (Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S.); Varzakas, TH (Varzakas, Theodoros H.)
Title: Application of failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), cause and effect analysis and Pareto diagram in conjunction with HACCP to a potato chips manufacturing plant
Source: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 42 (12): 1424-1442 DEC 2007
Abstract: Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) model has been applied for the risk assessment of potato chips manufacturing. A tentative approach of FMEA application to the snacks industry was attempted in order to analyse the critical control points (CCPs) in the processing of potato chips. Preliminary hazard analysis was used to analyse and predict the occurring failure modes in a food chain system (potato processing and potato chips processing plant), based on the functions, characteristics and/or interactions of the ingredients or the processes, upon which the system depends. CCPs have been identified and implemented in the cause and effect diagram (also known as Ishikawa, tree diagram and fishbone diagram). Finally, Pareto diagrams were employed towards the optimisation potential of FMEA.
ISSN: 0950-5423
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2006.01361.x

Record 82 of 83
Author(s): Cinque, M (Cinque, Marcello); Cotroneo, D (Cotroneo, Domenico); Di Martinio, C (Di Martinio, Catello); Russo, S (Russo, Stefano)
Editor(s): Huai, J; Baldoni, R; Yen, IL
Title: Modeling and assessing the dependability of wireless sensor networks
Source: SRDS 2007: 26TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON RELIABLE DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS, PROCEEDINGS: 33-42 2007
Book series title: SYMPOSIUM ON RELIABLE DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS, PROCEEDINGS
Conference Title: 26th IEEE International Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems
Conference Date: OCT 10-12, 2007
Conference Location: Beijing, PEOPLES R CHINA
Abstract: This paper proposes a flexible framework for dependability modeling and assessing of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The framework takes into account network related aspects (topology, routing, network traffic) as well as hardware/software characteristics of nodes (type of sensors, running applications, power consumption). It is composed of two basic elements: i) a parametric Stochastic Activity Networks (SAN) failure model, reproducing WSN failure behavior as inferred from a detailed Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA), and ii) an external library reproducing network behavior on behalf of the SAN model. This library specializes the SAN model by feeding it with quantitative parameters obtained by simulation or by experimental campaigns; it is also in charge of updating the network state in response to failure events during the simulation (e.g., routing tree updated due to node failures). The framework is thus suited to evaluate the dependability of several WSNs, with different topologies, routing algorithms, hardware/software platforms, without requiring any changes to its structure. The use of the external library makes the model simpler decoupling the network behavior from the failure behavior Simulation experiments are discussed that provide a quantitative evaluation of WSN dependability for a sample scenario: results show how the proposed framework supports WSN developers to find proper cost-reliability trade-offs for the system being deployed.
ISSN: 1060-9857
ISBN: 978-0-7695-2995-0

Record 83 of 83
Author(s): Buckle, P (Buckle, Peter); Anderson, J (Anderson, Janet); Ward, J (Ward, James); Jeffcott, S (Jeffcott, Shelly); Snadden, C (Snadden, Careen); Gleeson, A (Gleeson, Alison); Lim, R (Lim, Rosemary); Wadsworth, P (Wadsworth, Paul)
Editor(s): Bust, PD
Title: Patient safety: An ergonomics study of innovative design in pharmaceutical packaging
Source: CONTEMPORARY ERGONOMICS 2007: 457-462 2007
Conference Title: Annual Meeting of the Ergonomics-Society
Conference Date: APR, 2007
Conference Location: Nottingham, ENGLAND
Conference Host: Univ Nottingham
Abstract: Packaging of medication is an area of concern with respect to medication error. This study sought to evaluate how the design might influence errors across the current medication distribution system. This was defined as the warehouse, pharmacy and patient domains. Observations, interviews and proactive risk assessment, in the form of Failure Modes and Effect Analysis or FMEA, were performed on key processes and tasks at warehouses (n = 2), pharmacies (n = 12) and with patients (n = 27). A new packaging design by Almus Pharmaceuticals appeared to carry substantial benefits in all three domains, with the greatest benefits found in the pharmacy. The systems approach undertaken throughout the project has provided further insights and opportunities for improvement of medication provision.
ISBN: 978-0-415-43638-0

 

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